Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920
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Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920

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It is hardly necessary to speak about the organized socio-political life of Ukrainians in Crimea before the First World War. Only after the turbulent events of 1917 did Crimean Ukrainians, who had previously been referred to as “Russians” in the census, speak out loud. For example, in early May 1917, delegates from the Ukrainians of the Black Sea Fleet and the land units of the Crimea took part in the 1st All-Ukrainian Military Congress in Kyiv. These and other events are described below. 

Kerch

Application for departure to Ukraine in Kerch.
Application for departure to Ukraine in Kerch.

On April 28, 1918, the batteries of the Kerch Fortress saluted the Ukrainian national flag, which fluttered over the ancient fortress and the city. Prior to that, the Ukrainian community of Kerch opposed the Bolsheviks. Supported by the local Ukrainian population, which accounted for 58% of the inhabitants of the Kerch-Yenikal city, Ukrainian soldiers of the local garrison under the leadership of the community council captured the Kerch fortress and the city. On May 1, 1918, with the singing of the Ukrainian national anthem, a detachment of free Cossacks, organized for 3 days under the leadership of Ataman Levenko, led a column of demonstrators.There is information that in May 1917 in Kerch the Ukrainian association “Community” was organized under the leadership of a senior doctor of the local hospital, doctor of medicine Elisha (Olysiya) Volyansky; As of July 1917, it consisted of more than half a thousand people, mostly servicemen, metallurgical workers, shopkeepers, and employees. It was noted that members of the Hromada published articles on the history of Ukraine and the national liberation movement in a local newspaper, but in which one it remains to be seen. In the summer of 1917, the inhabitants of one of the villages near Kerch announced to the participants of the census before the Zemstvo elections that they had “joined” the Ukrainian Central Rada and refused to provide them with any information.

During the occupation of Crimea by the troops of Denikin and Wrangel, the Ukrainian community of Kerch was defeated.

Theodosia

In the companies of the reserve regiment stationed in Feodosia, in the first half of March 1917, company Ukrainian councils were organized, which eventually united and formed the Ukrainian regimental council. In April, centers of Ukrainian social revolutionaries emerged in the city, which had a significant influence on the Ukrainian military in the garrisons and contributed to the Ukrainization of military units.

On June 17, the Ukrainian Rada was organized in the city, and teacher V.M. Written.

At the end of August, 744 Ukrainian soldiers of the local 35th Infantry Reserve Regiment, almost all from Kherson, Ekaterinoslav, Tavria and Kharkiv, expressed their indignation that “the Provisional Government is tearing Ukraine to pieces again and for some reason does not recognize our provinces as Ukrainian.” . They demanded “accession to the autonomous Ukraine of Kherson, Ekaterinoslav and Ukrainian counties of Tavria and Kharkiv.”

In October, a Ukrainian battalion with its own staff, led by Ensign Falk, was approved on the basis of the 35th Infantry Reserve Regiment with the assistance of General Marx, Chief of Staff of the Odessa Military District; hundreds of Ukrainians donated 200 rubles to the battalion’s flag.

In the spring of 1920, an underground congress of representatives of Ukrainian organizations at military units convened in the city; in July, the underground headquarters moved its activities to Sevastopol.

Simferopol

After the February Revolution of 1917, the Prosvita branch was established in Simferopol. Army of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, which went down in history as Kharitina Pekarchuk) and several others. Through the efforts of the Ukrainian community, a Ukrainian choir and amateur group were organized, literary evenings were organized, a newspaper was published together with the Provisional Crimean Muslim Committee (the name of the publication is unknown, the Ukrainian part was edited by a man named Ben), and the 32nd, 33rd and the 34th Reserve Infantry Regiment stationed in Simferopol. Petro Blyzniuk, as well as Tina Knyshenko,was a member of the Simferopol branch of the Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Revolutionaries (USSR).

Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920At the beginning of March 1917, the first meeting of Ukrainians took place in Simferopol, which was attended by about 200 people. Most of them were soldiers of the local garrison. The next Ukrainian garrison chamber, which was attended by more than 7,000 Ukrainian officers and soldiers, was much more crowded. At the same time, the Simferopol Ukrainian community was founded, the council of which was headed by a teacher from the Klymenko gymnasium. The Council saw its task in organizing educational work among Ukrainian soldiers of the Simferopol garrison. The next step in the organizational formation of Ukrainian soldiers of the Simferopol garrison was the creation of a committee of the Ukrainian Military Club named after Hetman Petro Doroshenko. He actually took over the leadership of the activities of Ukrainians in the military units of the city.

In May 1917, the charter of the Simferopol Ukrainian community was approved, which planned to organize a national Ukrainian holiday in the city soon. On May 17, about 15,000 soldiers from various units, led by Yuri Vorotov-Khvylinsky, marched with Ukrainian flags through the main streets of Simferopol. The parade was hosted by Deputy Chairman of the Simferopol Garrison Council of Soldiers’ Deputies Yuriy Tyutyunnyk. This day actually became the beginning of the Ukrainian military formation in the Crimea.

On May 24, during the Shevchenko holiday, at the initiative of the Ukrainian community and the Ukrainian Military Club, the creation of the Ukrainian First Simferopol Regiment named after Hetman Petro Doroshenko was announced, which included 5,811 soldiers and 36 officers of the Simferopol garrison. The demonstration, according to some data, numbered more than 30 thousand people. Here is what her immediate participant mentioned: “On May 24, the joint efforts of the Ukrainian Community and the Military Club organized the Shevchenko holiday in Simferopol. The holiday for Simferopol turned out to be quite impressive. Up to ten thousand Ukrainians arrived from our hostage. For the first time, our Ukrainian detachments were practically united into hundreds and huts. The army lined up in the square. Several thousand civilian Ukrainians also arrived. There were also delegations from the Ukrainian hostages of Feodosia and Sevastopol, as well as from the Black Sea Fleet. The service and the requiem service were sent by Ukrainian members of the Black Sea Fleet, led by A. Levitsky. Then the choir sang the national anthem. A parade of troops took place. The ranks were slender in front of the presidium of the club and saluted in accordance with the drill charter. The elevation is extraordinary. The mood is touching. 

But the holiday ended with what none of our enemies had hoped for. After the parade, delegations from neighboring organizations greeted the army. Then a member of the presidium of our club, Lieutenant T [Itarenko?], Spoke. The speech of the latter was both short and simple. He said:  – The father-in-law read in the Gospel – ask and it will be given to you, seek and find, seek and open to you. We searched and found ourselves – connected with each other. They asked permission to form a Ukrainian regiment, but we were not given that. They pushed for the door, but no one opens it for us. What should we do? Gentlemen! We have the strength, so let’s break down the door! 

Thunder “glory” interrupted the speech. And for a long time it stretched far around the square. When it was quiet, the speaker finished:  – From now on we will not part. From now on we are the First Simferopol Regiment named after Hetman Petro Doroshenko!

“Glory” sounded again. In a few minutes the regiment marched to the barracks. They were busy, and a blue and yellow flag flew over them. And outside stood a guard, armed with rifles and machine guns. Hundreds of exercises and exercises were held . 

Welcoming the UCR, the Ukrainian Military Club asked it to implement the resolutions and resolutions of the first All-Ukrainian Military Congress. The Ukrainians wanted to know as soon as possible the numbers of the three corps, which had been called Ukrainian by the highest Russian military authorities, in order to send Ukrainian marching companies.  ” We give the word die all at-won freedom, when the Provisional Government meet trebuvannya the UCR  and the General Committee of Ukrainian as the main board of the Ukrainian people  , – assured the club members, asking also the Rada “heal all drastic measures before the Provisional Government to withdraw all Polish legions of territory of Ukraine and not to allow the formation of a new Polish division in Kyiv. ”

Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920On May 29, 1917, a joint extraordinary meeting of the Ukrainian Council and the organizing commission of the Simferopol Ukrainian Military Club named after Hetman P. Doroshenko, which was attended by members of the Council Matsko, Tytarenko, Tyutyunnyk, Szymanski, Markov, Chutenko, Stadnichenko, Bigdan, Tishchenko, Bort and “from the organizing committee more than 50 members, both soldiers and officers.” Ensign Tytarenko was elected chairman of the meeting, and soldier Bogdan (Bigdan?) Was elected clerk. During the discussion on the formation of the Ukrainian Reserve Regiment, there was a debate on how best to do it so as not to disrupt the garrison among the soldiers. In the end, the organizing commission of delegates from all companies of the 32nd, 33rd and 38th Infantry Regiments decided to form a separate Ukrainian Reserve Regiment from all Ukrainian soldiers of the Simferopol garrison; for this company,in which the majority were Ukrainians, had to declare themselves hundreds of Ukrainians and elect hundreds from among Ukrainian officers. It was also planned to appoint a general meeting of the organizing committee and the club council, to which the head of the local garrison was to be invited to get acquainted with the formation of the Ukrainian regiment and an invitation to participate in its further organization. It was noted that the Ukrainian hundreds were to go to the drill under the direction of centurions-officers of Ukrainian origin in separate places, elected in agreement with the chief of the garrison with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:they had to declare themselves hundreds of Ukrainians and elect hundreds from among Ukrainian officers. It was also planned to appoint a general meeting of the organizing committee and the club council, to which the head of the local garrison was to be invited to get acquainted with the formation of the Ukrainian regiment and an invitation to participate in its further organization. It was noted that Ukrainian hundreds were to go to the drill under the direction of centurions-officers of Ukrainian origin in separate places, elected in agreement with the chief of the garrison with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:had to declare themselves hundreds of Ukrainians and elect hundreds from among Ukrainian officers. It was also planned to appoint a general meeting of the organizing committee and the club council, to which the head of the local garrison was to be invited to get acquainted with the formation of the Ukrainian regiment and an invitation to participate in its further organization. It was noted that the Ukrainian hundreds were to go to the drill under the direction of centurions-officers of Ukrainian origin in separate places, elected in agreement with the chief of the garrison with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:to which the chief of the local garrison was to be invited to get acquainted with the formation of the Ukrainian regiment and to be invited to participate in its further organization. It was noted that the Ukrainian hundreds were to go to the drill under the direction of centurions-officers of Ukrainian origin in separate places, elected in agreement with the chief of the garrison with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:to which the chief of the local garrison was to be invited to get acquainted with the formation of the Ukrainian regiment and to be invited to participate in its further organization. It was noted that the Ukrainian hundreds were to go to the drill under the direction of centurions-officers of Ukrainian origin in separate places, elected in agreement with the chief of the garrison with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:elected by agreement of the garrison chief with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time:elected by agreement of the garrison chief with the club council. The second issue on the agenda is the sending of representatives to the 35th Infantry Regiment in Feodosia to begin organizing Ukrainian soldiers. – decided to postpone until the right time: ” We must first complete the formation of the Ukrainian regiment, and then begin the organization and propaganda in other places . 

On June 26, 1917, at one o’clock in the afternoon, Ukrainian soldiers of the reserve regiments with waving flags went to the building of the military brigade and appealed to the garrison commander, Colonel Kondratiev, with a request to form a Ukrainian regiment and provide premises for it. In turn, Kondratiev allowed the formation of separate Ukrainian battalions at each reserve regiment, but recognized the provision of space as impossible at the time and asked to give him time to solve the problem. Before that, a thousand-strong Ukrainian holiday took place in Simferopol:  Troops marched through the streets all day with national Ukrainian flags, dotted with slogans: “Long live Ukraine!”, “Ukraine is not dead!” etc. Many soldiers and officers wore Ukrainian combat suits. The troops were accompanied by military bands and numerous crowds of people 

Kharytyna Pekarchuk, a native of Simferopol, a soldier of the UPR army, mentioned the events of that time: “In the early spring of 1917, a congress of Soviet soldiers and workers ‘deputies took place in Simferopol. Everyone could take part in the officers’ club. We sent our delegates under the name of the Ukrainian Social Revolutionaries, and I was one of them. Moscow’s social revolutionaries dominated. Representatives of each nation had the right to read their programs before the vote, but they were afraid of independent Ukrainians, so they tried not to let us vote. When we started reading our program, we stomped and whistled. We tried in vain to speak to their minds, remembering that we also have the right to submit our projects, which can be re-voted, but they did not give this opportunity. It became clear to everyone that they were hostile to us and that we could only count on our own strength. But it was not easy to organize oneself at such a distance from Kyiv.After all, at that time there was almost no communication with our center. But we started looking for connections with the Ukrainian government, then using private contacts, then sending delegates. We also translated the Ukrainianization of military units without instructions, because there were none at that time. Gathering in “Enlightenment”, we feverishly planned, shared projects and predictions, and actually formed there. Officially, we cooperated with the government of the Provisional Government, it was necessary to lull their sensitivity. And when the order finally came to our unit to march to the front, we considered it a desirable solution. After learning about the training of the Ukrainian regiment in Zaslav, they decided to outwit the military authorities. Our intention was to join the training in order to join the Ukrainian army. This passion captured all the Ukrainian youth of Simferopol.Gymnasium and student youth joined the army, “boys”, boys aged 12-14, also volunteered, but were sent home. On July 24, 1917, we left the Ukrainian Marching Battalion, the chicken of the 34th Reserve Regiment, from Simferopol to the mainland of Ukraine. “.

That summer, the local press reported “alarming sentiments in the Simferopol garrisons in connection with the Ukrainian council’s calls for the creation of special Ukrainian companies.” It was noted that the joint meeting of the city’s revolutionary organizations considered the right of each nation to decide its own existence indisputable, but considered it “inexpedient” to “partially resolve the national question by default, by separating combat units from the army” before forming the Constituent Assembly in November 1917. During the voting, the question of whether the meeting considers the formation of Ukrainian units to be timely, the representatives of the Ukrainian council demonstratively left the meeting.

On August 25-26, 1917, the first congress of representatives of Ukrainian organizations of Tavria took place in Simferopol under the slogan “Fight – conquer”, which became the first regional experience of self-organization of Ukrainians in Crimea and the mainland of the province. Representatives of the Ukrainian military garrisons of Crimea took an active part in the event, which led to the adoption of a number of decisions of a national-democratic nature. Thus, with the help of Ukrainian officers, the Congress adopted a resolution to convene the All-Ukrainian Constituent Assembly by the Ukrainian Central Council, which was to resolve the issue of the state future of Ukraine.

In the elections to the All-Russian Constituent Assembly in November 1917 in the Simferopol garrison, the Ukrainian Socialist Revolutionaries won 14.3% (the Bolsheviks – 17.1%, the Muslims – 17.1%). In honor of the proclamation of the Ukrainian People’s Republic, Ukrainian organizations of the city held a demonstration, which was attended by soldiers and civilians.

Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920In May 1918, with the assistance of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State, the publication of the Ukrainian-language newspaper Nash Step began by an anonymous activist of the community, a “petty official, a man without education.” Representatives of the German occupation contingent soon closed the newspaper for “harmful direction”; the editorial board had to be moved to Melitopol, where it maintained ties with Crimean Ukrainian organizations and reflected Crimean socio-economic and social processes on its pages. However, the newspaper also spoke sharply about the then Ukrainian government, for which it was punished by a temporary suspension. It is possible that the publisher of “Our Steppe” in Simferopol was Yevhen Haneizer, who personally brought funds from Kyiv to the Crimea for the needs of the local Ukrainian press.Shortly after coming to power, the head of the Crimean regional government, Matviy Sulkevych, began persecuting Ukrainophile newspapers and Ukrainian communities.

On April 24, 1918, the Crimean group of the UPR Army entered Simferopol, but was soon forced to leave Crimea due to the threat of armed conflict with the German army due to the uncertain position of the then Ukrainian government, which considered Crimea an independent territorial unit. , who himself gave the order to capture the Crimea for the Black Sea Fleet. As a member of the group Borys Monkevich mentioned, “Nowhere in Ukraine has the Ukrainian army been greeted with such enthusiasm, applause and admiration. The presidium of the self-government asked to inform the Ukrainian government that the population of the city would be glad to see the Ukrainian government. The local population always expressed their sympathy for the Ukrainian army, asked them to stay, not to leave the Crimea, and promised to side with the Cossacks in case of struggle. Representatives of public organizations came to Bolbochan to express their friendship with the Ukrainian army and to thank them once again for liberating them from the Bolsheviks. They asked to convey to the Ukrainian government their fervent desire for Crimea to be annexed to Ukraine. When Bolbochan’s self-propelled car drove to the city government, a crowd of people surrounded him so much that he could not pass. All the streets were filled with people,who went to see off the Cossacks. Many volunteers joined the Crimean group here, but under conditions with General Kosh, they had to be released. Later, many of these volunteers came from the Crimea and rejoined the Cossacks. “.

On August 25, 1918, a general meeting of members of the Ukrainian community of the city and its environs took place in Simferopol in its premises – building №8 on Lazarevska Street. The following issues were on the agenda: information and reading of the approved charter of the community and the consumer society of the “old” Ukrainian community (so far the meaning of this concept has not been disclosed), election of the community board and estimation of its revenues and expenditures for the current year. On August 28-29, on the basis of a resolution of the initiative group, a congress of all Ukrainian organizations and parties of Crimea was held there with the permission of the Crimean regional government and the German commandant, which was opened by Mitrofan Maltsev, a member of the executive committee of Ukrainian Tavria organizations.Simferopol was presented by the chairman of the local community council Petro Blyzniuk (elected clerk of the congress) and the initiator of the Simferopol public cooperative Denis Matsko, Yalta – the chairman of the local Ukrainian community Pavlo Goryansky and his deputy Natalia Yaroshevska, Sevastopol and the committee member club and chairman of the cooperative Ivan Lykhonos (elected chairman of the congress), Yevpatoria – a friend of the chairman of the community Pavlo Cherevchenko, Alupka – a delegate of the Ukrainian community Joseph Shevchenko (elected deputy chairman of the congress). The following agenda was adopted unanimously: reports from cities, organization of a central union of communities, opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.Yalta – the chairman of the local Ukrainian community Pavlo Goryansky and his deputy Natalia Yaroshevska, Sevastopol – a member of the audit committee of the Ukrainian club Maxim Mulenko and the treasurer of the club and chairman of the cooperative Ivan Lykhonos (elected chairman), Yevpatoria – a fellow chairman of the community Pavlo Alupka – delegate of the Ukrainian community Yosyp Shevchenko (elected deputy chairman of the congress). The following agenda was unanimously adopted: reports from the cities, organization of the central union of communities, opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.Yalta – the chairman of the local Ukrainian community Pavlo Goryansky and his deputy Natalia Yaroshevska, Sevastopol – a member of the audit committee of the Ukrainian club Maxim Mulenko and the treasurer of the club and chairman of the cooperative Ivan Lykhonos (elected chairman), Yevpatoria – a fellow chairman of the community Pavlo Alupka – delegate of the Ukrainian community Yosyp Shevchenko (elected deputy chairman of the congress). The following agenda was unanimously adopted: reports from the cities, organization of the central union of communities, opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.Sevastopol – a member of the Audit Commission of the Ukrainian Club Maxim Mulenko and the treasurer of the club and chairman of the cooperative Ivan Lykhonos (elected chairman), Evpatoria – a friend of the chairman of the community Pavlo Cherevchenko, Alupka – a delegate of the Ukrainian community Joseph Shevchenko (elected deputy chairman) . The following agenda was unanimously adopted: reports from the cities, organization of the central union of communities, opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.Sevastopol – a member of the Audit Commission of the Ukrainian Club Maxim Mulenko and the treasurer of the club and chairman of the cooperative Ivan Lykhonos (elected chairman), Evpatoria – a friend of the chairman of the community Pavlo Cherevchenko, Alupka – a delegate of the Ukrainian community Joseph Shevchenko (elected deputy chairman) . The following agenda was unanimously adopted: reports from the cities, organization of the central union of communities, opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of an exemplary draft charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities.opening of cooperatives on the ground, cultural and educational affairs, development of a model draft of the charter of Ukrainian cultural and educational communities. After that, the Congress adopted the relevant resolutions: first of all – to establish a Ukrainian newspaper in the Crimea (for some reason in Russian) and to support the Crimean Ukrainian communities with the funds and literary work of the publication “Our Steppe”, which was in Melitopol in a “helpless situation”. In order to spread national education, the Ukrainian authorities in Crimea had to organize courses in Ukrainian studies, lectures and reading “with a lantern” (cinema), to establish Enlightenment centers, kindergartens, schools, to hold national holidays, etc. – and the regional council in Crimea to always be services of Ukrainian organizations to assist in these national affairs. ” It was proposed to arrange preparatory schools for children by the communities at the first opportunity, so that they would then enter the first grades of secondary schools with Ukrainian as the language of instruction; in the 1918-1919 academic year, each community had to organize courses in Ukrainian studies, Ukrainian language,literature, history, culture, geography not only for students but also for adults. The Ukrainian component (songs, games, etc.) was to be introduced in kindergartens, “and where possible, to open their own kindergartens.” It was emphasized the need to assist Ukrainian organizations in organizing book collections and improving the ordering and supply of books and magazines; the regional council was to inform the organizations about the situation of the book market and the appearance of new publications and “to organize an exemplary book collection in the center.” Particular attention was paid to stage work:It was emphasized the need to assist Ukrainian organizations in organizing book collections and improving the ordering and supply of books and magazines; the regional council was to inform the organizations about the situation of the book market and the appearance of new publications and “to organize an exemplary book collection in the center.” Particular attention was paid to stage work:It was emphasized the need to assist Ukrainian organizations in organizing book collections and improving the ordering and supply of books and magazines; the regional council was to inform the organizations about the situation of the book market and the appearance of new publications and “to organize an exemplary book collection in the center.” Particular attention was paid to stage work: “Bearing in mind that the Ukrainian theater was and is the highest development of Ukrainian spiritual life, why should it rise to the highest heights, which sows the future harvest, the cultural field of life, and therefore should conduct theatrical affairs on the ground as widely as possible. They will take care of establishing their own choir with an experienced conductor in each community, if necessary, all choirs of Ukrainian communities should unite for public concerts. If necessary, choristers can be accepted into the choir for salaries . 

Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920Given that Ukrainian organizations, uniting only on the basis of cultural and educational tasks, could not meet the economic needs of citizens, it was decided to offer all Ukrainian organizations in Crimea to establish their own national cooperatives, which would be united by the Crimean General Union of Cooperatives; the charter of the cooperative of the Simferopol Ukrainian community was to be taken as a model. At the same time, it was proposed to include representatives of the Ukrainian Council of Crimea in the Council of the Union of Cooperatives. In general, when founding Ukrainian organizations in the Crimea, the Congress unanimously decided to take into account the charter of the community of Simferopol, advising to take it as a model. In early October, the community began organizing a network of Ukrainian cooperatives in the county – consumer and agricultural societies.

Finally, the establishment of a regional body of Ukrainian organizations in Crimea called the “National Ukrainian Council in Crimea” was announced, which would consist of “five members and one candidate” and should be located in Simferopol, implementing all resolutions of the Congress. The elected members of the National Council were assigned to start their activities on August 30.

In September, the Rada sent a delegation to Kyiv to apply to the Ukrainian National Union for a representative of Crimean Ukrainians. By the way, the Union was in opposition to Hetman Pavel Skoropadsky, whose government took active measures to develop the socio-political life of Ukrainians in Crimea. For some time, it was announced the establishment of the Bureau of the Ukrainian Regional Council of Crimea in Kyiv, which was located in building №39 on Pushkinskaya Street. The bureau was headed by Yakym Khrystych, a midshipman of the Ukrainian Navy, who in 1917 became a co-founder of the Ukrainian Naval Club in Sevastopol and headed the Naval Hut named after P. Sagaidachny, arriving at his head during the October coup in Petrograd on November 24, 1917 from Sevastopol to Kiev in defense of the Ukrainian Central Rada. In 1918Khrystych was the state inspector of food and land affairs, the UCR commissioner in the Crimea; On April 15, by order of the UPR Minister of the Interior, he was sent to Simferopol to establish a branch of the UPR Ministry of Internal Affairs Information Bureau, whose duty was to disseminate information about the Ukrainian government’s policy, laws, and “work on bringing Crimea closer to Ukraine.” Already during the time of Hetman Skoropadsky, Khrystych submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State his report on a trip to Crimea on May 15, 1918, in which he stated: “Since I had to talk to Crimean politicians, we can conclude that most, especially trade, working and citizens, regardless of nationality, are based on the Ukrainian orientation. During that short time in Crimea, I made the following impression from my negotiations with the region’s politicians,that when there is our good will, we can be sure that the region wants to federate with Ukraine. ”

Ukrainian voice of Crimea: Kerch, Simferopol, Feodosia, Yalta 1917-1920On September 21, 1918, a large congress of representatives of trade and industrial organizations, stock exchange committees, cooperatives, banks, food administrations, mayors, and representatives of zemstvo administrations took place in Simferopol. The issue of economic agreement with Ukraine was discussed during the meeting: delegates were elected for the planned talks. A number of speakers called for a complete customs union with Ukraine.

In early October 1918, the Simferopol Ukrainian community organized a network of Ukrainian cooperatives in the county – consumer agricultural societies.

On November 11, 1918, a general meeting of the National Ukrainian Council in the Crimea was held in Simferopol with the right to represent one delegate from each existing Ukrainian organization in the Crimea. The agenda was to include reports from the places that were proposed to be in writing, notices of the regional council, cooperative, educational and other current affairs, replenishment of council members and the election of the audit commission. Two days later, a congress of Crimean Ukrainians was held, at which the idea of ​​convening a “pre-parliament” was put forward.

Yalta

In the same year, on the Green Holidays, the Ukrainian Central Rada began raising funds to support the Ukrainian movement. The Yalta Ukrainian community donated 75 rubles to the Ukrainian National Fund “for education in Ukraine.”On April 18, 1917, the Crimean press reported that a group of Yalta residents had decided to establish a local Ukrainian community, which could include Ukrainians of “various communities, classes, and parties,” who recognized Ukraine’s right to national political self-determination. The community set itself the following tasks: 1) the development of national identity of its members; 2) propaganda of the Ukrainian idea; 3) maintaining close ties with Ukrainian centers; 4) establishing relations with representatives of other peoples who lived on the southern coast of Crimea. The first community meeting was announced on April 23. Paul Goryansky, who headed the community, and the owner of the American Store, P.Ya. Kalmykov (initials are not deciphered). Consultations were held respectively at the dacha “Darsan” and in the named store.

On May 3, 1917, the first in Ukraine collective commemoration of the poet and public figure Stepan Rudansky took place in Yalta, which gathered about 300 residents of Yalta and its environs. A national flag was present above the grave, and a large part of the youth was dressed in Ukrainian. This event became a manifestation of the Ukrainians of the Crimean south. In June, the community opened a reading library in the men’s gymnasium.

In the summer and autumn of 1917, the city press actively published news from the Council of the Yalta Ukrainian Community – in particular, about meetings that discussed current affairs in Ukraine in general and in the community in particular, as well as lectures on Ukrainian literature and history. In October, the community opened a library-reading room in the Gogol School building.

Reports in the Crimean press about the creation of the Yalta Ukrainian community. 18. 04. 1917
Reports in the Crimean press about the creation of the Yalta Ukrainian community. 18. 04. 1917

In 1918, Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky was rather skeptical about the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State, which “at its own risk and fear led a rather naive agitation” in the Crimea:  “Some young people in Ukrainian uniforms in Yalta and nearby towns persuaded the public to become Ukrainians. It was not successful, of course, but it did no harm to anyone . 

At the beginning of the winter of 1918, Pavlo Horyansky, in the conditions of the “red terror”, facilitated the holding of elections to the Ukrainian Constituent Assembly on the territory of the peninsula. On January 6, he telegraphed to Sevastopol to election commissioner Yuriy Dezhur-Zhurov about compiling voter lists. In Crimea, elections took place only elsewhere – given the terror and arrests by left-wing radical forces with the support of Black Sea Fleet sailors. On January 29, Goryansky told Sevastopol that the election would take place on February 2-4.

In the autumn of 1919, Pavlo Horyansky raised the issue of opening a Ukrainian cooperative in the Crimea and obtaining premises for the Yalta community. In the late summer of 1920, he met in Yalta with members of the UPR military delegation to Wrangel, informing them of the mood in Crimean government circles and the situation of the Ukrainian movement on the peninsula. In his memoirs at the time, Ukrainian socio-political figure Volodymyr Leontovych briefly described the existence of the Ukrainian community in the city: “In the days of Denikin and Slashchev, there was such a crackdown on Ukrainians that the community had to hide and not gather, because in those circumstances no Ukrainian work was possible. During that time, several members of the community left Yalta. Citizens did not have a program and did not imagine what kind of national work could and should have been started in those circumstances. Crimea was cut off from all of Ukraine; what was going on there – no one knew. Power belonged to strangers, none of the citizens had ties to its representatives . 

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The project was implemented with the support of the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation

Sergey Konashevich

Author of numerous culturological publications, editor of Ukrainian Culture Publishing House LLC

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