Despite the statements of some Russian historians, Ukrainian newspapers were published during the wars and revolutions in Crimea.
Despite the statements of some Russian historians, Ukrainian newspapers were published during the wars and revolutions in Crimea.
/

The Ukrainian press of Crimea was born by the Ukrainian revolution in 1917-1918

Start

Akey role among the media in the political process to spread in the middle. XX century newspapers played radio and electronic media. Therefore, an essential aspect of the study of the period of wars and revolutions of the beginning. XX century there is a study of the newspaper case. The WMC also played an important role in the nation-building process. The history of the Ukrainian community of Crimea and, in particular, the processes of self-organization of Ukrainians on the scale of the Crimean Peninsula and Tavria in 1917–1920 are insufficiently studied.One of the most poorly researched and controversial aspects of the Crimean Ukrainian community is the publication of newspapers to meet its information needs and protect Ukrainian national interests.

NZ Yablonovska, a leading specialist in the history of the Crimean ethnic mass media, in his monograph The Crimean Ethnic Press: History and Modernity calls 1917–1920 the period of the second rise of the Crimean ethnic press in Crimea, as Crimean Tatar, German , Jewish, and Karaite were published at the time. and Russian periodicals. The researcher only mentions the resolution of the first congress of Ukrainian organizations in the Crimea (August 28-29, 1918) on the need to publish a Ukrainian newspaper in Russian, which was never published due to lack of funds. The same conclusion can be drawn from N. Yablonovska’s article “From the History of the Origin of the Ukrainian Press of the Crimea” – Ukrainian newspapers in the Crimea in 1917-1920 were not published. Although in this material the researcher,in addition to the resolution of the first congress of Ukrainian organizations of the Crimea in 1918, also mentions the decision of the Sevastopol Ukrainian Black Sea Community, adopted in April 1917, the immediate opening of schools, libraries and the publication of newspapers. Regarding the last question, N. Yablonovska correctly noted that information about the publishing activities of the community was not preserved.

Despite the statements of some Russian historians, Ukrainian newspapers were published during the wars and revolutions in Crimea.
Despite the statements of some Russian historians, Ukrainian newspapers were published during the wars and revolutions in Crimea.

Thus, acquaintance with the above-mentioned research on the history of the Crimean periodicals of 1917–1920 may lead to the conclusion that there are no facts of publishing Ukrainian newspapers in the Crimea, although the authors directly mentioned do not claim this. This is done by some representatives of Russian historiography. Thus, A. Butovsky, in his rather biased article on the Crimean-Ukrainian customs war in 1918 (for example, the author uses the phrases “the so-called Ukrainian People’s Republic”, “aggressive actions of” home-grown “Ukrainians” ), in particular, states that “no newspaper in the Ukrainian language was published in the Crimea until 1917 or until the end of the civil war.” At the same time he tries to rely on the authority of the Ukrainian scientist: “One of the most serious Ukrainian specialists in the history of periodicals during the Civil War in Ukraine and in the Crimea, Professor NV Yablonovska, who devoted her entire life to this, persistently searched, but never found in the Crimea from 1917 to 1921 any Ukrainian -speaking or pro-Ukrainian newspaper “[1, p. 37].There is no information about the publication of Ukrainian newspapers in the Crimea in 1917–1920 and in a special article by OG and VG Zarubinykh about the periodicals of that time and in the monograph of their authorship about the period of wars and revolutions “Without winners . From the history of the civil war in the Crimea “, which, in particular, covers the topic of the Crimean media.

Such hasty conclusions raise natural doubts and need to be verified, as they are not very consistent with the processes of rather rapid development of the Ukrainian national movement in Crimea in 1917–1920, or with the general tendencies of ethnic and other press functioning at that time, and finally with Ukrainian data. historiography. Ukrainians were the third largest ethnic community in the region – in 1917 they numbered approximately 100,000 people (it is difficult to calculate precisely because of the inclusion of Ukrainians and Great Russians in one column “Russians”) or 12.4% of the polyethnic Crimean population. During the wars and revolutions on the Crimean peninsula, Ukrainian communities, other cultural and educational organizations, clubs, military committees, branches of Ukrainian parties (USSR, USDRP, USPS, etc.) emerged and functioned, Ukrainian councils of military and workers’ deputies, the National Ukrainian Council in the Crimea. Obviously, they needed means of communication and influence. So it is unlikely that they, despite all the difficulties, could completely avoid the process of “the second rise of the Crimean ethnic press.”

Let us clarify that in this article under the term “Ukrainian newspapers” for the period of wars and revolutions of the beginning. XX century We, following the historiography of the Crimean ethnic press, will understand those periodicals that meet the criterion of “Ukrainianness” in terms of content, publishers and audience, and the linguistic feature itself will not be decisive. That is, if, for example, a newspaper is in Russian, but is published by a Ukrainian organization and reflects the point of view of the Ukrainian public or socio-political forces, then we will refer it to Ukrainian publications.Since, for example, researchers of the history of the press rightly attribute the magazine “News of the Karaite Spiritual Board” (1917-1919) to the Karaite media, and the newspaper “Voice of the Tatars” – to the Crimean Tatars.

Ukrainian. Crimea 1913
Ukrainian. Crimea 1913

 

Attempts to create Ukrainian newspapers in the Crimea and Northern Tavria in the pre-revolutionary period were made repeatedly, but were opposed by the imperial authorities, who pursued a policy of denying the national identity of the Ukrainian people and discrimination against the Ukrainian language. In 1903, the request to start publishing the agricultural magazine “Hliborob” in Russian and Ukrainian in Sevastopol was rejected (officials were suspected by both the publisher and a possible editor – the military, engineer, designer and co-founder of RUP L. Matsievich , who was under secret). police surveillance), in 1909 the publication in Orekhovo of a weekly newspaper in the “local Little Russian dialect” “Ridna Khata” was denied due to a report by the Berdyansk district envoy, who considered the editor-in-chief D.Yarosh “politically unreliable.” Only the Simferopol newspaper Tavrychanyn (1905–1914) was able to publish materials in Ukrainian in the Crimea in 1909–1910, which put pressure on the publication and its editor-in-chief, DV Kolomiytsev. Some researchers claim that after the struggle he was forced to submit, and in the eyes of the provincial authorities gained a reputation as a man “almost abnormal.” It is interesting that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials by Tavrichanin in the following years as well.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian -language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.Only the Simferopol newspaper Tavrychanyn (1905–1914) was able to publish materials in Ukrainian in the Crimea in 1909–1910, which put pressure on the publication and its editor-in-chief, DV Kolomiytsev. Some researchers claim that after the struggle he was forced to submit, and in the eyes of the provincial authorities gained a reputation as a man “almost abnormal.” It is interesting that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials by Tavrichanin in the following years as well.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian -language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.Only the Simferopol newspaper Tavrychanyn (1905–1914) was able to publish materials in Ukrainian in the Crimea in 1909–1910,which put pressure on the publication and its editor-in-chief, DV Kolomiytsev. Some researchers claim that after the struggle he was forced to submit, and in the eyes of the provincial authorities gained a reputation as a man “almost abnormal.” It is interesting that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials by Tavrichanin in the following years as well.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian -language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.DV Kolomiytsev. Some researchers claim that after the struggle he was forced to submit, and in the eyes of the provincial authorities gained a reputation as a man “almost abnormal.”It is interesting that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials by Tavrichanin in the following years as well.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian -language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.DV Kolomiytsev. Some researchers claim that after the struggle he was forced to submit, and in the eyes of the provincial authorities gained a reputation as a man “almost abnormal.” It is interesting that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials by Tavrichanin in the following years as well.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian -language materials “Tavrichanin “in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials” Tavrichanin “in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials” Tavrichanin “in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.that we know the facts of printing Ukrainian-language materials “Tavrichanin” in the coming years.

OG and VG Zarubina, NV Yablonovskaya rightly claim that after the February Revolution of 1917 in the conditions of the introduction of freedom of speech and other civil liberties there was an extraordinary rise of the newspaper business in the Crimea. If from 1838 to 1917 in the Tavriya province approximately 300 newspapers and magazines were published, then in 1917–1920 only in the Crimea about 160 editions. It is obvious that the newspaper business was relatively free only in March-December 1917, and later it was negatively affected by frequent changes in political regimes and their policy of restricting freedom of speech, hostilities, economic devastation, and so on. The reasons for the rise of periodicals in the Crimea during the wars and revolutions, the above researchers believe: the presence of pre-revolutionary traditions;local professional journalists; exceptional demand for information; proximity abroad, where did the paper and information come from, a significant number of cultural figures came to the Crimea from the central provinces of Russia, among whom was a high percentage of writers; the presence of consumers of printed products – a wide range of educated public, both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].proximity abroad, where did the paper and information come from, a significant number of cultural figures came to the Crimea from the central provinces of Russia, among whom was a high percentage of writers; the presence of consumers of printed products – a wide range of educated public, both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].proximity abroad, where did the paper and information come from, a significant number of cultural figures came to the Crimea from the central provinces of Russia, among whom was a high percentage of writers; the presence of consumers of printed products – a wide range of educated public, both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].a significant number of cultural figures came to the Crimea from the central provinces of Russia, among whom was a high percentage of writers; the presence of consumers of printed products – a wide range of educated public, both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].a significant number of cultural figures came to the Crimea from the central provinces of Russia, among whom was a high percentage of writers; the presence of consumers of printed products – a wide range of educated public, both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81] .both local and foreign; significant income from advertising; “National-revival movement of the peoples of the peninsula” [27, p. 80–81].

Undoubtedly, some of these factors also concern the Ukrainian newspaper business in the Crimea. So, for example, on its territory from pre-war time correspondents of the Ukrainian periodicals lived, as, for example, the teacher and the writer P. Goryansky (Yalta), the doctor, the poet and the writer K. Bililovsky (Feodosia ), the historian and the teacher P. Nechiporenko), playwright M. Korol (Armyansk), military doctor and author of materials in the Western Ukrainian press E. Volyansky (Kerch). During the First World War, civilians, including real and potential authors for the Ukrainian press, such as ethnographer and educator E. Rudnytsky (Simferopol), were forcibly deported to the Crimea from the western provinces of the Russian Empire, including those inhabited mainly by Ukrainians. .

There were, of course, factors that negatively influenced the emergence of the Ukrainian press in Crimea. First of all, they include: Ukrainians as of the beginning. In 1917, despite a fairly large share in the Crimean population, compared to some other ethnic communities of the Crimean Peninsula, they had a smaller share of educated compatriots, practically no financiers, large businessmen or other stable source of financial support (Crimean Tatar press was largely supported by waqf property). , Ukrainian-language education systems and the press, were relatively poorly represented in the authorities and self-government of the region, and so on.

 

Fragment of the announcement, which speaks about the Ukrainian language in the newspaper "Tavrichanin"
Fragment of the announcement, which speaks about the Ukrainian language in the newspaper “Tavrichanin”

In the spring and summer of 1917, in the Crimean cities and other settlements, Ukrainians formed a number of communities, other cultural and educational societies, and clubs for the military. At that time, Ukrainian social and political life was most widespread in the provincial center of Simferopol and in the city of the Black Sea Fleet, Sevastopol, although in both major cities Ukrainians, according to the census, made up a small part of the population compared to other ethnic communities. In the spring of 1917, the Sevastopol Black Sea Ukrainian community raised, among other tasks of nation-building, the question of publishing a newspaper. At the same time Simferopol Ukrainian Military Club. Hetman Petro Doroshenko defined one of his statutory tasks as “publishing brochures, books, and magazines”and stipulating that “for the organization of reports, the publication of magazines, walks, and so on.both the general meeting and the council elect special commissions of special purpose.” Probably, similar items were in the statutes of other Ukrainian organizations in the Crimea, although few managed to implement them. Extremely interesting evidence of the publication of the Ukrainian newspaper in the Crimea left in the memoirs of H. Pekarchuk, who in the spring-summer of 1917 participated in Simferopol in the creation of the society “Enlightenment”, UPSR. She was among the five employees of the Tavriya provincial and Simferopol county zemstvos who initiated the formation of “Enlightenment”. H. Pekarchuk recalled the activities of this organization as follows:“This [the emergence of Prosvita – AI] immediately activated Ukrainians, because it gave us the opportunity to meet for the first time. Slowly managed to organize a Ukrainian choir, amateur [theatrical – AI] circle, to organize literary evenings, etc. Over time, we even started publishing our own newspaper. We did this in alliance with the Tatars, who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.” who had just fled to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “because it gave us the opportunity to meet for the first time. Slowly managed to organize a Ukrainian choir, amateur [theatrical – AI] circle, to organize literary evenings, etc. Over time, we even started publishing our own newspaper. We did this in alliance with the Tatars, who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.” who had just fled to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “because it gave us the opportunity to meet for the first time. Slowly managed to organize a Ukrainian choir, amateur [theatrical – AI] circle, to organize literary evenings, etc. Over time, we even started publishing our own newspaper. We did this in alliance with the Tatars, who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.” who had just fled to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “to organize literary evenings, etc. Over time, we even started publishing our own newspaper. We did this in alliance with the Tatars, who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.” who had just fled to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “to organize literary evenings, etc. Over time, we even started publishing our own newspaper. We did this in alliance with the Tatars, who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.” who had just fled to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.”who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben. “who had just begun to become nationally active and agreed to cover the publication. The editor who edited the Ukrainian part was called Ben.”Nevertheless, the revolutionary transformations of 1917, which lifted the restrictions imposed by the Romanov empire, led to a new stage in the Ukrainian national movement of Crimea, which was marked by its structuring, mass events and fairly rapid spread of modern national consciousness among many Ukrainians. , which were then on the Crimean peninsula. Interestingly, the latter process also involved some representatives of other ethnic communities. A striking example of this was H. Knyshenko (this name she bore in 1917 after her first husband, born in the future – Pekarchuk), who grew up in Simferopol in a wealthy Polish Izbitsky family, but chose the Ukrainian identity.

As early as July 24 (August 6), 1917, H. Knyshenko (Pekarchuk) left Simferopol as a soldier of the Ukrainianized unit to serve on the mainland. Accordingly, such a Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper should be published approximately between late spring and early. August 1917. Modern researchers write about 3 Crimean Tatar newspapers that appeared in Simferopol in the summer of 1917 – Crimean Tatar-language “Kyrym odzhagi” July 3) and “Millet” (“People” – the body of the Provisional Crimean Muslim Executive Committee , June 27 / July 10) and the Russian-language “Voice of Crimea” (the body of TimKMVK, July 22 / August 4). None of these publications were Crimean Tatar-Ukrainian in terms of language or editorial policy, although, of course, events in Ukraine were reflected in their pages. So far,no confirmation of H. Pekarchuk’s words about such a joint publication has been found in other sources. This may be a mistake made by the author of memoirs written after the Second World War. However, the socio-political situation in Simferopol in the summer of 1917 in connection with the first democratic elections to the City Duma could cause the emergence of another publication. In this election, Crimean Tatar and Ukrainian organizations came up with a single list and received 9% of the vote and 7 seats in the Simferopol City Duma. Therefore, the hypothesis based on information from H. Pekarchuk’s memoirs about the short-term existence of the Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper in the summer of 1917 needs further testing.This may be a mistake made by the author of memoirs written after the Second World War. However,the socio-political situation in Simferopol in the summer of 1917 in connection with the first democratic elections to the City Duma could cause the emergence of another publication. In this election, Crimean Tatar and Ukrainian organizations came up with a single list and received 9% of the vote and 7 seats in the Simferopol City Duma. Therefore, the hypothesis based on information from H. Pekarchuk’s memoirs about the short-term existence of the Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper in the summer of 1917 needs further testing.This may be a mistake made by the author of memoirs written after the Second World War. However, the socio-political situation in Simferopol in the summer of 1917 in connection with the first democratic elections to the City Duma could cause the emergence of another publication. In this election,Crimean Tatar and Ukrainian organizations came up with a single list and received 9% of the vote and 7 seats in the Simferopol City Duma. Therefore, the hypothesis based on information from H. Pekarchuk’s memoirs about the short-term existence of the Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper in the summer of 1917 needs further testing.In this election, Crimean Tatar and Ukrainian organizations came up with a single list and received 9% of the vote and 7 seats in the Simferopol City Duma. Therefore, the hypothesis based on information from H. Pekarchuk’s memoirs about the short-term existence of the Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper in the summer of 1917 needs further testing.In this election, Crimean Tatar and Ukrainian organizations came up with a single list and received 9% of the vote and 7 seats in the Simferopol City Duma. Therefore,the hypothesis based on information from H. Pekarchuk’s memoirs about the short-term existence of the Ukrainian-Crimean Tatar newspaper in the summer of 1917 needs further testing.

Directly related to our topic is the use of the Ukrainian language in the columns of periodicals of self-government bodies, because in other regions of Ukraine, for example, the printed bodies of zemstvos after the February Revolution became Ukrainian-Russian or switched entirely to Ukrainian. On July 22 / August 4, 1917, the Tavriya Provincial Zemstvo purchased the Yuzhnye Vedomosti newspaper and a printing house for the Provincial Zemstvo. Naturally, the question arose about the editorial policy of the new edition. The discussion, in particular, was caused by the problem of the use of languages ​​by the Zemstvo newspaper of the multinational Tavriya province, in which a relative majority were Ukrainians.

8 (21) August 1917, after the report of a member of the board PS Bobrovsky (Social Democrat-Plekhanov) on the acquisition of this publication, the provincial committee on public education of the Tavriya provincial zemstvo considered at its meeting: 1) the definition of language, which would correspond to the circle of readers, whose interests are mainly pursued by the publication, and 2) the content of the newspaper in accordance with the requests of the rural population and the external form of articles. Regarding the use of languages, three proposals were considered: 1) printing of correspondence “in all local dialects”; 2) placement of correspondence in the Ukrainian language; 3) leave only the Russian language in use. Most members of the provincial committee on public education supported the second proposal, that is,the printing of Ukrainian-language correspondence alongside Russian texts.

However, the Tavriya Provincial Zemstvo Assembly finally had to approve the decision to purchase the publication and determine the ratio in the use of Russian and Ukrainian languages. On the last question, on August 26 (September 8), 1917, at its extraordinary session, a heated debate arose. Glasny MS Skrypka (member of the USSR) stated that “we do not have a Ukrainian newspaper yet”, and therefore proposed to establish a Ukrainian-language department in the Zemstvo newspaper to print articles in order to allow the Ukrainian population of the province to understand his national movement that resulted in demand for broad autonomy of Ukraine “. In his opinion, a specially invited person should lead such a column.

The editor of the Yuzhnye Vedomosti newspaper, AB Derman (a member of the provincial committee of the People’s Freedom Party), said that the publication would be of a mixed peasant-urban type, focus on the nascent rural intelligentsia, and invited the provincial peasant congress to cooperate. at that time the influence of the Russian Socialist Revolutionaries prevailed. According to him, it is possible to publish Ukrainian-language articles, “but difficulties due to [absence – AI] employees, compiler, proofreader.” Member of the Tavriya Provincial Zemstvo and Deputy Tavriya Provincial Commissioner of the Provisional Government P. Bobrovsky stated that the Zemstvo and the newspaper “were against the publication of articles in the local Ukrainian dialect” due to lack of technical capabilities,but allow the possibility of publishing articles “casual employees and correspondents… without opening a permanent department.”

The reference by the representative of the provincial government and the editor to the technical difficulties of publishing Ukrainian-language articles resembles the concealment of real motives rather than sincere arguments. Exactly in the summer of 1917 the question of autonomy of Ukraine and inclusion in its borders of the Tavriya province arose. Representatives of Russia’s liberal (members of the PNS) and revolutionary democracies (members of the AKP, RSDLP, etc.), which then dominated the provincial authorities and self-government, sought to distance themselves from the autonomist-federalist initiatives of the Ukrainian Central Rada. Thus, in July (August) 1917, the Tavriya Provincial Commissioner Cadet M. Bogdanov,relying on the decision of the Provincial Committee of Public Organizations and the uncertainty of the borders of autonomous Ukraine, ignored the invitation of the Chairman of the General Secretariat of Ukraine V.Vynnychenko and Kyiv Provincial Commissioner M. Sukovkin to arrive in Kyiv for a meeting of provincial commissioners, “united by the regional body under the Central Ukrainian Council.” Leading representatives of the provincial government even after the revolution could not completely overcome the great-power attitude to the Ukrainian language. It is noteworthy that when in the summer of 1917 Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and we must write in Russian”and resolutely refused permission to relocatethat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian” and flatly refused in the resettlement permitthat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian “and flatly refused in the resettlement permitwe have Russia here and must be written in Russian” and flatly refused in the resettlement permitthat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian “and flatly refused in the resettlement permitwe have Russia here and must be written in Russian” and flatly refused in the resettlement permitthat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian” and flatly refused in the resettlement permitand flatly refused in the resettlement permitthat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian “and flatly refused in the resettlement permitand flatly refused in the resettlement permitthat when in the summer of 1917 the Ukrainian refugees asked the provincial commissioner for the allocation of land, he replied: “that you give me a paper written in Khakhlatsky, we have Russia here and must be written in Russian “and flatly refused in the resettlement permit

On August 26 (September 8), 1917, at an extraordinary session of the Tavriya Provincial Zemstvo, VS Volyk (a member of the USSR) declared that “the population is most willing to read in Ukrainian” and that “there are no obstacles” to the parallel publication of the newspaper in Russian and Ukrainian. language that “there will be no problems with finding a compiler and that” Ukrainian is one language, there is neither Kyiv nor Galician “(modern chauvinists have not changed their rhetoric too much in a hundred years!). Nevertheless, the majority of the Zemstvo assembly rejected M. Skrypka’s proposal to establish a Ukrainian-language department in the newspaper, and decided to publish small Ukrainian-language materials in the form in which they were sent,ie without bringing the text closer to the literary language.

Through this part of the vowels stated that they would campaign against the distribution of the newspaper “Yuzhnye Vedomosti” and for the distribution of the Ekaterinoslav Ukrainian-language newspaper, and also protested against the presentation of materials in the newspaper in a distorted Ukrainian language.

 

Crimea on the "Map of Ukraine" by Stepan Rudnytsky in 1918 with the designation of the Ukrainian population in the Crimea (yellow)
Crimea on the “Map of Ukraine” by Stepan Rudnytsky in 1918 with the designation of the Ukrainian population in the Crimea (yellow)

On August 26, 1917, the Extraordinary Tavriya Provincial Zemstvo Assembly rejected the issue of a special Ukrainian department in the Zemstvo newspaper by a majority vote, depriving the majority of the province’s population of the opportunity to read in their native language about the zemstvo’s activities and general local institutions.At the same meeting of the provincial zemstvo was announced a “special opinion” on the language of the Zemstvo newspaper group of vowels, which included V. Volyk, P. Vovk, G. Usatenko, S. Gavrilenko, G. Shut, D. Todorov, I. Starodubtsev, B. Memetov, I. Ametov, A. Liberov and M. Skripka. At their request, the text of this statement was added to the journal of meetings: national issues in general, and in particular the right to have a special department in the Zemstvo newspaper Yuzhnye Vedomosti, in which all articles related to Ukrainian studies would be published in Ukrainian as a language more understandable to the local Ukrainian population.

Considering such a decision of the Zemstvo assembly incomprehensible and one-sided, a group of vowels strongly protests against such a decision and declares that it will refrain from agitation, which leads to the distribution of this newspaper among the Ukrainian population of the Tavriya province. ”

At the first congress of Ukrainian organizations of Tavria, which took place on August 12-13 (25-26), 1917 in Simferopol, it was decided, among other things, “for the true coverage of the Ukrainian movement” and counter-propaganda to publish articles in the provincial zemstvo newspaper. And Ukrainian-language materials appeared in its columns in the autumn of 1917, although infrequently, and therefore could hardly satisfy the need of Ukrainians in the province for information in their native language.

In the autumn of 1917, the political situation in the post-imperial space and, in particular, in the Crimea and Northern Tavria, changed rapidly and worsened, especially after the Bolshevik coup in Petrograd and the proclamation of the UPR. On November 12 (25), 1917, in Sevastopol, in honor of the last event, Ukrainian socio-political forces held a mass demonstration, and the Black Sea Ukrainian Military Committee completed the formation of the Sevastopol Ukrainian Council of Military and Workers’ Deputies . This council issued at the end of 1917 – at the beginning. In 1918 he published his own printed organ, the Bulletin of the Ukrainian Council of Military and Workers’ Deputies of the Mountains. Sevastopol “. The newspaper was published in several columns, mostly in Russian.After the change of the political situation at the beginning. 1918 and the seizure of power in the Crimea by left-wing radicals led by the Bolsheviks ceased to exist.

The fall of the left-wing radical regime in Crimea, which did not have widespread support among the Crimean population, occurred in April 1918 as a result of German, UPR, Crimean Tatar uprisings in the mountainous part of the peninsula, and pro-Ukrainian forces in Kerch. The troops of the Kaiser’s Reich took advantage of the UPR’s diplomatic mistakes and the superiority of the military forces to withdraw the Crimean group of the UPR army from the Crimea, and thus in May 1918 completely occupied it. The authorities of the Ukrainian state, which emerged as a result of the coup of P. Skoropadsky on April 29, took a clear course from the first steps to the annexation of Crimea. To this end, in May 1918, a civil and military administration was created for this region, but it did not gain real power due to the position of the German side.The military and civilian leaders of the Reich did not agree on the future of Crimea, which was strategically valuable, but worked out various plans, including its annexation or the creation of a puppet state under its protectorate.

There was no unity within the Crimean population regarding the necessary form of political system in Crimea. In May 1918, the Kurultai of the Crimean Tatar people, which resumed its activities after the dissolution of the Bolsheviks and briefly came to the fore in the political life of the peninsula, put forward the slogan of an independent Crimea. The occupying power agreed to recognize the right to form a regional government under the Kurultai, but due to opposition from Russian cadets and socialists who dominated the self-governing bodies, the government led by a representative of the Crimean Tatar national movement was not formed.

In the conditions of political uncertainty, lack of information, hostile propaganda for the government of Hetman P. Skoropadsky, it was important to convey to the people of Crimea their point of view and to have the means to influence public opinion in Crimea. On May 31, 1918, the provincial commander of Tavria reported to the Minister of War that not all the population in Tavria knew “about the creation of the Main Power in Ukraine.”

If such a situation with information was in Northern Tavria, which was controlled by the authorities of the Ukrainian state, in Crimea it was worse. The Interim Commissioner for Citizens of Ukraine in the Crimea, Ya. Khrystych, wrote in a report in Kyiv in mid-May 1918: we will not lose the moment to prepare “Public opinion” when the Crimean constituent assembly will gather, it is possible to be sure – the edge wishes to federate with Ukraine “. The hetman’s government took certain measures to create a pro-Ukrainian press in the Crimea.

Simferopol County Head of the Ukrainian State M. Blagonovsky in June 1918, at least three times reported to the provincial head of the need to publish a Russian-language newspaper to inform the Crimean population “in the right direction.” The occupying military authorities of Germany in May 1918 did not allow the county commanders of the Ukrainian state to Crimea, sent Ukrainian soldiers abroad, raised German flags on most ships of the Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol instead of Ukrainian ones, and in June of that year failed Crimean-Tatar talks. politicians on the formation of the Crimean government instructed the creation of the Crimean regional government to the Lithuanian Tatar, Lieutenant General MS Sulkevich. In a Russian-language report of June 29, M. Blagonovsky, referring to the changing political situation,stressed the need to publish a printed organ in Russian.

In the same document, he left a valuable mention of the publication in Simferopol of an unnamed activist of the Simferopol Ukrainian community newspaper “Our Step”.

As a conservative representative of the authorities that emerged from the overthrow of the Ukrainian Central Rada, he is sharply critical of the Ukrainian community in Simferopol, which, in his opinion, “under the guise of cultural and educational activities, supports and develops among Ukrainians living in Crimea to new social experiments. ” ” And it is difficult to count on the former protégés of the Central Rada,… yesterday’s socialists to be able to understand and support the policy of the current Government, “wrote M. Blagonovsky.

He expressed surprise that a member of this community – a “petty official, a man without education” – was instructed by the Foreign Ministry to publish a newspaper in the Crimea. The latter, according to the mayor, began to do so in Simferopol, but the Germans closed it “in a few days for the harmful direction.” “After that, the same newspaper (Nash Step) was moved to Melitopol, but even here the Ukrainian authorities closed it for ten days for an article directed against the current government.” In our opinion, M. Blagonovsky’s hypercritical attitude to the Ukrainian community in Simferopol is far from objective, rather it reflects his conservative political position. However, this report contains an important mention of the publication in Simferopol of the newspaper “Nash Step”,which had to be moved to Melitopol only because of a direct ban by the German occupation authorities.Moreover, the newspaper continued to publish materials about the Crimean communities of Ukrainians and Crimea in general, and therefore was intended for the Crimean Ukrainian-speaking reader. For example, in June 1918, “Nash Step” published articles about the Feodosiya community, the situation in the Crimean government due to the high cost of food, receiving a provincial drawing of Tavria 100 thousand rubles from the Ukrainian Ministry of Land Affairs to pay salaries to government officials in June .receipt of the provincial drawing of Tavria 100 thousand rubles from the Ukrainian Ministry of Land Affairs to pay salaries for June to government officials.receipt of the provincial drawing of Tavria 100 thousand rubles from the Ukrainian Ministry of Land Affairs to pay salaries for June to government officials.

The publication positioned itself as a “Ukrainian people’s socio-political and literary newspaper” and was published “temporarily three times a week” under the slogan “Long live the harmony and brotherhood of the peoples of Ukraine!”. The cost of one room was 30 kopecks. In Melitopol, the newspaper was published by the Kaganets company.

In order to spread pro-Ukrainian sentiment in Crimea, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Ukrainian State instructed the writer, journalist and agronomist EA Ganeiser to transfer funds to three Crimean newspapers, one of which he edited. We assume that one of these publications was the Simferopol newspaper Utro Yuga. In general, E. Ganeiser played a special role in the summer of 1918 in attempts to establish informal contacts between the Ukrainian authorities and the Crimean regional government of S. Sulkevych.

Delegates of the Congress of Ukrainians (Ukrainian organizations) of the Crimea, which took place in Simferopol on August 28-29, 1918, adopted 12 decisions, two of which concerned the newspaper case. Yes, they decided that the publication of a Ukrainian newspaper in Russian was necessary and decided to take action “or funds were found to carry out this case.” The second decision concerned the support of the Ukrainian newspaper Nash Step: “Given the helpless position of the newspaper Nash Step, the Congress finds it necessary to offer Ukrainian communities in Crimea to come with financial assistance in publishing the newspaper, and together with literary work . “The situation is very reminiscent of the attitude of modern government agencies to the publication of the newspaper” Crimean Room “!

In the conditions of unstable socio-political and military situation, economic problems at the end of 1918-1920, representatives of Crimean Ukrainian organizations faced in the field of newspaper publishing not only problems of weak financial base, censorship or lack of paper, but also the political regimes that controlled the peninsula. , treated covertly or openly negatively towards the manifestations of Ukrainian identity. Therefore, in 1919–1920, the Ukrainian press probably did not appear in the Crimea.

The Ukrainian newspapers of the Crimea of ​​1917–1918 are a valuable source on the history of the Crimean community of Ukrainians, contain interesting information about socio-political life, and therefore need further identification and study.

Andriy IVANETS –  Candidate of Historical Sciences,  Member of the Academic Council of NDIU

Information partner of the  Crimean Svitlytsia newspaper

If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter.

The project was implemented with the support of the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation

Andrey Ivanets

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at Ukrainian National Research Institute

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: