A group of commanders of the Crimean Red Army
A group of commanders of the Crimean Red Army
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Status of the Crimean Republic

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On May 9, 1919, the government of the Crimean Republic sent a telegram to Moscow outlining its immediate plans: “We have published a government declaration, generally similar to yours. Recently, having collected factual data on the atrocities of volunteers committed under the protection of the Allies against the civilian population, we will publish on the radio a protest against the previous actions of the Entente and the current blockade of the coast. We will inform a copy of the protest note immediately. We urge you to take all measures to establish direct telegraph communication with Kyiv and Moscow. ” From the text of the telegram it is possible to see once again: the government of the Crimean republic completely depended on the instructions which came to it from outside.

Unlike the government of the Republic of Tavrida, which was quite satisfied with the situation, when due to lack of reliable communication the center sometimes did not have a clear idea of ​​the events on the peninsula, the government of the Crimean Republic wanted to inform Moscow about any issues. However, everyone in the Kremlin was worried about “Crimean separatism.” On May 28, the Politburo of the Central Committee (only three were present: V. Lenin, L. Kamenev, and M. Krestinsky) decided on the status of the Crimean government and the Crimean regional party committee. The decision stated: “It was adopted as a directive that the government acts as a provincial executive committee, subordinate to the Central Executive Committee and the relevant people’s commissars, and the regional party committee is equated to a provincial committee directly connected with the Central Committee of the RCP (B).” The Crimean Red Army, as part of the Red Army, was subordinated to the Southern Front “as a division.”No independent action was allowed. Thus, the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) exhaustively determined the real status of the Crimean Republic.

The decision of the Revolutionary Committee telegraphed to Simferopol, the same day, May 28, Revolutionary its produblyuvav ” Crimean government operates as a sponge and a sponge equivalent regional committee associated with RCP (b). The Crimean Army is a part of the Red Army of the RSFSR, which is part of the Southern Front as a division, and no independent actions and formations on the Crimean Peninsula are allowed. The fleet and ports are under the control of the All-Russian Naval Headquarters . “

A group of commanders of the Crimean Red Army
A group of commanders of the Crimean Red Army

What was the official status of the republic proclaimed by the Bolsheviks? He had different definitions in different documents. The Crimean archives contain the order of the People’s Commissar of Health D. Ulyanov dated May 9, which states: “On this day I took up the duties of People’s Commissar for Health and Social Security of the Crimean Soviet Federal Republic.” The name “federal” republic is found in some other resolutions of the Crimean People’s Commissar. Thus, the Crimean Republic was considered both a territorial autonomy within the RSFSR, and a federal republic (the word “federal” emphasizes the fact of its equality with other Soviet republics, including the RSFSR), and the province (according to the Politburo of the RCP Central Committee). May 28). At the same time, from June 1, 1919, it, together with Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus,was proclaimed a member of the military-political union of the Soviet republics.

This discord did not bother the Moscow party center at all. The Central Committee of the RCP (B) created the Crimean Republic only for “external” use.

Determining the real status of the Crimean Republic in the resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) of May 28, 1919 led to the fact that party and Soviet bodies of Crimea were removed from the Central Committee of the CP (b) U and the People’s Commissar of Ukraine and subordinated exclusively to the RSFSR. only de jure, ie in accordance with the decision of the VΙΙΙ Congress of the RCP (b), but also de facto. The aspirations of the leaders of Soviet Ukraine, who wanted to keep Crimea in their composition, were not satisfied. However, KP (b) U during April – May continued to insist on belonging to the Crimea of ​​the USSR.

For the first time, the question of Crimea’s affiliation was considered at a meeting of the Simferopol Military Revolutionary Committee on April 27, 1919. It was on the agenda in the following wording: “To whom is Crimea subordinated – Ukraine or Great Russia?”. After a long discussion, the Revolutionary Committee made the following decision: “Crimea is becoming an independent unit. Commissariats should be guided exclusively by decrees from the center, but in some cases it is permissible to amend Ukrainian decrees. ” Thus, the local Bolsheviks believed that Crimea was a territory governed by the laws of Moscow.

Order of the Commandant of Yalta, June 2, 1919
Order of the Commandant of Yalta, June 2, 1919

On May 6, Shulman, secretary of the Crimean Regional Committee of the RCP (B), sent a telegram to the Central Committee of the RCP (B) stating: On May 9, the Central Committee of the CP (B) U asked the Central Committee of the RCP (B) to answer who was in charge of the party organizations of Crimea, the Central Committee of the RCP (B) or the Central Committee of the CP (B) U. On May 10, the Central Committee of the RCP (B) sent a reply to both parties. The Crimean regional committee received a telegram stating: “ According to the resolution of the VIII Congress, Crimea is equated to the region. Organizationally connected with the Central Committee of the RCP (b). Secretary of the Central Committee Stasov “. The Central Committee of the CP (b) U reported: “The Crimean peninsula belongs to the Tsek RKP (b). Secretary Ceka RCP (b) Stasova “.

However, Ukraine did not want to accept the loss of the Crimean peninsula. On May 13, the Central Committee of the CP (b) U again asked the Central Committee of the RCP (b) to inform whether the party organization of Crimea was part of the CP (b) U. On the same day, the secretariat of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) replied: “The Crimean peninsula belongs to the Tsek RCP (B).” The message was again sent to the Crimean regional committee of the RCP (B). This was confirmed by the above-mentioned resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) of May 28, 1919.

However, H. Rakovsky sent various instructions to Simferopol, which also concerned the issues of “party building.” This caused dissatisfaction on the part of the Crimean government. On June 9, D. Ulyanov sent a telegram to H. Rakovsky, stating: “Your telegram for for 2204 dated June 7 was received. However, all issues of Crimea in accordance with the resolution of the Central Committee of the RCP are resolved exclusively by Moscow. Pass your proposal to Moscow. “

The problem of belonging to the three northern counties of the Tavriya province arose again. As a year ago, during the existence of the Republic of Tavrida, the leaders of the Crimea tried to subdue them. On June 22, the following telegram was sent to H. Rakovsky: “ It is clear from your letter that the three northern districts of the Tavriya province cannot belong to the Republic of Crimea. Please, as soon as you receive this letter, urgently or by telegram, open or encrypted, let us know whether we should raise the issue of these three counties at all . “

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The project was implemented with the support of the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation

Tetiana Bikova

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Scientist of the Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

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