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The greatest threat to archaeological heritage sites in the occupied Crimea is posed by the so-called “Rescue archaeological work” at the construction site of roads, power grids, gas pipelines, waste processing plants, infrastructure projects in cities and towns. The results of such work, which are carried out with the permission of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, are not always published, in contrast to research, which is continued by Crimean archaeologists permanently after the occupation. The reaction of the Ukrainian authorities and specialists usually followed after the issuance of such permits, and to work on the largest projects covered in the Russian media. However, with the use of open data, the start of work on monuments, their location can be predicted a year before the actual start.
Under the program “Socio-economic development” the state bodies of the Russian Federation planned to implement 854 projects, 231 of which are planned for implementation in 2020-2022. Direct reference to the work in the direction of “cultural heritage” is given in 2 points (“repair and restoration work on 21 monuments”, and “financing of Chersonesos Tavriya”), but all construction projects that are related to earthworks or underwater works pose a threat to the archaeological heritage, moreover, the payment for “rescue archaeological work” is included in construction projects.
In 2015, with the approval of this institution, excavations were carried out on conditional sections of the construction of a high-voltage line of the project “Energomist Russian Federation – Crimean Peninsula” from Feodosia to the village. Barley Leninsky district, from the bay of Kamysh-Burunska to the village. Priozerne, from the village of Glazovka to the village of Soldiers. It was agreed to carry out earthworks and construction works in the area of construction of the high-voltage line of the project “Energomist Russian Federation – Crimean Peninsula” in the northern part of the archaeological heritage site “Chroni North” in the area of construction of the object entitled “Cabling Construction and installation work, Poland,supply of MTR and Pro for the construction of a 220 kV submarine crossing ”on the territory of Glaziv village council of Leninsky districtThus, the main areas of infrastructure construction in the Crimea have been known since 2014 , moreover, known areas of funding and projects that are being implemented or planned to be implemented during this program. Each of the planning schemes, which are attached to the projects on the territory of the occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea, are approved by the local body for the protection of cultural heritage (so-called “State Committee for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea “).
In the same year, approvals were made for excavations and nine permits were issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation for “archaeological work” from “exploration” to “earthworks” to employees of the “Crimean Regional Center for Archaeological Research”, Charitable Foundation “Heritage of Millennia”, Ltd. “Arche”, so-called “Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve” Naples Scythian. ”Another 4 permits were issued for excavations on the construction site of Simferopol TPP.
T. z. “State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea”, exercised control over the transfer for storage in museum funds of materials discovered during archaeological excavations. According to museums and museums-reserves in the occupied Autonomous Republic of Crimea from May 1, 2014 to May 1, 2015, 8,824 storage units were handed over to these funds by the heads of archaeological expeditions, of which 69 storage units are made of yellow metal and 130 units of white metal. May 2013 to May 1, 2014 in the funds of museums and museums-reserves handed over over 8,218 storage units, of which 51 storage units of yellow metal and 50 units of white metal) .
In 2016, permits were issued by the State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea on the possibility of earthworks, construction and other works on sites of archaeological heritage, which were completely “subjected to rescue archaeological excavations and provided scientific reports on security and rescue works “in the construction zone of the object” Main gas pipeline Krasnodar Territory – Crimea “. 54 archaeological heritage sites were excavated under this construction. Permits have been issued regarding the possibility of conducting earthworks and construction and other works on the sites of archaeological heritage sites, “Which were completely subjected to rescue archaeological excavations and for which scientific reports on security and rescue operations were provided”in the area of construction of the high-voltage line of the project “High-voltage line 220 kV Kafa – Simferopol II chain”. Archaeological heritage sites were included in the construction: Choban Chokrak settlement, Tuush I settlement, Toben-Saray settlement and necropolis in the Belogorsky district of the Republic of Crimea, Melek settlement and settlement, Denisivka I settlement, Kurganna settlement. group “Aromatic I”, “Mound” Mazanka II “, Mound group” Crimean Rose I “.
The Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation extended the issuance of 8 permits for excavations for the construction of the power system and gas pipeline, which were carried out on 16 sites, and “exploration with local earthworks.”Permits have been issued for the possibility of excavation and construction and other works on the sites of archaeological heritage sites, “which were completely subjected to rescue archaeological excavations and for which scientific reports on security and rescue works” were provided in the construction zone. through the Kerch Strait “under which the object of cultural heritage got:” Bay of Ak-Burun “. In 2014, during a reconnaissance conducted on the sea section of the bridge over the Kerch Strait, archaeologists of the IA RAS certified at the bottom of the Kerch Bay an accumulation of ancient pottery with an area of up to 50,000 square meters. m. The object was located in shallow water between Cape Ak-Burun and the mine pier of the Kerch fortress, was named “Bay of Ak -Burun “and was previously identified as a cultural layer of the anchorage of merchant ships, where when unloaded into the sea dumped damaged containers. On the territory of the monument it was planned to build 28 supports of technological, automobile and railway bridges, and the total area of the sites to be excavated was more than 4.5 thousand square meters. m. From July to December 2015, 3 diving stations explored 16 areas of the bottom with a total area of 1200 square meters. m, while raised and transferred for in-house processing more than 20 thousand finds  .
As a result of consideration by the State Committee for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea of the section of the project “Ensuring the protection of objects of the airport complex of Simferopol airport from acts of illegal interference in its activities, the Republic of Crimea “, the mound was put under construction object of archeological heritage” Mound group New Airport “on the site of construction of the airport complex.
T. z. “State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea”, exercised control over the transfer for storage in the museum funds of materials discovered during archaeological excavations. Archaeological expedition leaders handed over 7,592 storage units to these funds, including 32 yellow metal storage units and 240 white metal storage units (from May 1, 2015 to May 1, 2016, 5,563 storage units were handed over to these funds by archaeological expedition managers, of which 102 storage units of yellow and white metal).
In 2017–2018, most of the excavations allowed by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation and approved by the so-called “State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea” on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, passed along the route of the route “Kerch-Sevastopol”, as mentioned above. Work continued on the construction site of the Krasnodar Krai-Crimea Main Gas Pipeline. The so-called detachment “East Crimean AE” works were carried out at the settlement “Tasunove-7” in Leninsky district. Territory that includes the remains of a plowed monument, which was damaged by construction equipment in 1999: the arable horizon with the remains of ground structures was partially removed. The works were carried out on an area of about 3000 square meters. m.Found a collection of ancient pottery and tools, coins, jewelry .
However, we have considered projects at the level of funding from the federal budget of the Russian Federation, local and regional leadership of the occupied Crimea, and targeted grants are also sent, which are not recorded in the Federal Target Program. And the analysis of open data of local self-government on threats to cultural heritage is an almost unexplored topic.
An example of such a project on the territory of cultural heritage sites is the implementation of construction and installation works on the object: “Construction of a gas distribution pipeline for gas supply to Basenko Street, Gasprinsky city of Bakhchisarai”. – IV century), “Starosilske” (II – VII centuries) and the cemetery of the parish Salachyk (XVI – XX centuries.) In the gorge Ishchek-Sokhmak. “Muslim cemetery of the parish Salachik Asma-kuyu” – a necropolis with a long history of use, occupying the southeastern slope of Kala-Asta and the bottom of the gorge.
The administration of the Bakhchisaray Historical, Cultural and Archaeological Reserve has allowed such works to be carried out on the monument, which is part of the reserve.
In 2017–2018, the Russian Federation began reconstruction and construction of new bypasses of the Kerch-Sevastopol highway in the chained Crimea. Project experts managed to locate 94 objects of archaeological heritage with an accuracy of several tens of meters, although some may be polygonal localization . In the “List of monuments of local and national importance located in the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea”  only 15 objects are identified. All monuments that came under construction were not included in the State Register of Immovable Monuments of Ukraine.
Due to the current norms of road construction in Russia, it was necessary to remove a large amount of soil (for roads of the first category of 12 meters on each side of the road surface), the work was carried out in large areas [8 ]. During the excavations, residential buildings and industrial complexes were discovered. Excavations were carried out on the territories of individual burials and burial complexes.Illegal “rescue archeological works” were carried out by employees of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of the History of Material Culture of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. “Institute of Archeology of the Crimea RAS”, museums-reserves of Chersonesos, Bakhchisarai, “Naples of Scythia”, so-called. “East Crimean Museum-Reserve”, created on the basis of the Kerch Historical and Cultural Reserve, were carried out on the settlements of the Crimea of different periods: the Bronze Age, Hellenism and Roman times, early and late Middle Ages, New Age.
At the end of 2018, the Crimean New Archaeological Expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences completed field work on the Crimean transport infrastructure under construction – on the Kerch-Simferopol-Sevastopol route and on road and rail access roads to the Crimean Bridge. Exploration of archaeological heritage sites falling into the construction zone was started in 2016. At the first stage, their task was to clarify the location and boundaries of already known settlements and cemeteries and survey the area to identify as yet unknown archaeological monuments. In April 2017, excavations began. The length of the front of the works was a little less than 300 km.
Work on most sites was carried out in large areas or for the full disclosure of the object. The inconsistency of actions of builders and archaeologists (correction of the route, issuance of terms of reference) several times led to the beginning of construction on undiscovered parts of monuments: Kirk-Azizler necropolis (was discovered on a smaller area than the one where the work was carried out), Scythian settlement Kermen -Burun, where the post was opened, but the settlement itself fell under the embankment of the roadway.
Thus, a few Stone Age sites were discovered in the foothills. Among them is the Novenke parking lot in the Bakhchisaray district: a collection of flint products belonging to various traditions was removed as a result of excavations.
The settlements of the Bronze Age, discovered during the works, were located mainly on the Kerch Peninsula.
The Middle Bronze Age is represented by the mounds of the catacomb archaeological culture (the second third of the 3rd millennium BC) of the Ingul catacomb culture (the turn of the 3rd-2nd millennium BC). The cultural layer of this time was discovered in the multi-layered settlements “Gorodishche 11 km” near Kerch and “Primorskoe North-West” in Feodosia. The Late Bronze Age in the Crimea is represented by monuments of log, Sabatin and Belozersk cultures. In particular, in the materials of the settlement “Meadow North-West-2” in the east of the Kerch Peninsula, Russian archaeologists have identified materials Sabatinov and Belozersky cultures.The Early Bronze Age of the peninsula is represented by monuments of pit and Kemi-Obin cultures, which date back to the border of IV-III – the first half of III millennium BC. They were found in the mounds of the following objects: “Technopark”, “Lgovske”, “White Rock”, “Dobrolyubovka”, “Crimean Rose-2”, Eski-Yurt, “Mound with a box”.
Monuments of the transition period between the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were discovered in the settlement “Wall-1” (Sivag-Kermen-Burun) in the district of Sevastopol and “Tuush-3” north of the Old Crimea. Medieval burial mounds were discovered in a mound group in the village of Lhovske of the Kirov district with the burial of the Cimmerian leader, “Kurgan-3” of the group “Fontan-1” in the west of the Leninsky district with complex stone structures , mound №1 of the group of 14 mounds (Ajilar) in the village of Bila Skelya, Belogorsky district, where the burial of a noble Polovtsian soldier with weapons was opened.
Work on the monuments of the settled population of the Early Iron Age was carried out on the Kerch Peninsula and in the city district of Sevastopol: the complex of the village estate “Manitra” with a cemetery west of Pantikapaion (Kerch), which functioned during the heyday of the Bosporus. BC BC (preserved, the route of the railway exit to the Crimea-Kuban bridge is laid past the monument); complex of Greek agricultural estates “Fountain-6” IV century. BC is. ; mounds “Hospital” with the burials of representatives of the Bosporus nobility of the second half of IV century. BC is .; settlement “Hospital I”; the middle layer of the multi-layered “11th kilometer settlement” (Leninsky district) with two cemeteries “Alexander Rocks” 1 and 2, left by its population; mounds of the group “Cement Slobidka “, one of which – № 4 moved to the complex “Kerch Fortress”
Monuments of Roman times are also discovered in the city district of Sevastopol, in the valley of the river Belbek. This is the settlement “Front-2”, a complex of settlements near the object “Wall-2”, as well as the cemetery “Front-3”. In 2018, the moundless cemetery “Front-3” in the Nakhimovsky district of Sevastopol, which dates from the end of I – end of IV century, was also completely excavated. N. is.
Monuments of the Golden Horde were excavated in the central and south-eastern part of the Crimea: the XIV-century estate “Pearl” in the district of the Old Crimea, where a collection of imported irrigation utensils made in different centers, from Spain to Persia and China; Kosh-Kuyu complex with a total area of up to 25 hectares west of Kerch.
Some of the excavated medieval settlements existed until the middle of the twentieth century, and the village of Agibel in the Leninsky district still exists under the name of Luhove. On its north-western outskirts, a site of a settlement of the Crimean Khanate and New Age period was excavated (Meadow North-West-1). Another of these objects – Argin (“Leninske-7”), was discovered the remains of a post office of the XIX century.,
In many settlements of the Crimean Khanate and modern times were found cemeteries: Kirk-Azizler on the northern outskirts of Bakhchisarai. It was an aristocratic necropolis of the capital of the Crimean Khanate, it existed until the 1920s. Excavations have revealed burials according to the Muslim rite and the remains of tombstones, the oldest of which dates from the XIV century; burial ground of the end of the 13th – beginning of the 18th century, left by the inhabitants of the village of Su-Bash, excavated in the Kirov district. Open (more than 1000 burials); medieval burials next to the mound № 1 of the Technopark mound group in the Bakhchisaray district are two shallow streams filled with decapitated male skeletons dumped in a mess. Some of them have traces of injuries. Two arrowheads of the XI-XIII centuries were found here.
The latest of the excavated monuments (mid-nineteenth – early twentieth century) – the camps of n troops. The first – on the northern side of Sevastopol, on the way to Bakhchisarai, the remains of residential and commercial barracks and stationary tents, officer’s dugouts and other camp buildings. The second camp was opened in northwestern Kerch.
The first major construction project of the Russian Federation in occupied Sevastopol was the construction of the Sevastopol PGU-TPP. In 2016, the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation issued permits for “reconnaissance with local earthworks”  in Sevastopol. The results of these studies, if any, have not been published.
One of the largest projects being implemented in the occupied Sevastopol in 2018-2019 is the construction of a museum-opera complex on Cape Kryshtalevy. The difficulty of monitoring this object is the almost complete lack of documentary support, except for the decisions of the so-called “Department for the Protection of Cultural Heritage” in Sevastopol on the resolution on the registration of ACS, which was discovered during the works . The reason for the lack of documents is the mechanism for financing the project – not at the expense of state funds of the Russian Federation, but through the Renaissance Foundation. Therefore, procurement through the resource “State Procurement of the Russian Federation” is not carried out
In the absence of open data on the composition of the project, the analysis of ACS threats on the construction site is based on cartographic data, media publications and stories with a fixed image from the construction site. Thus, on April 12, 2019, in the evening news program “VISTI Krym” on Russia1 TV channel, a story about the construction of a museum-opera complex at Cape Kryshtalevy in Sevastopol was presented. In the video series, the works on the cultural heritage site “Fort Menshikov” present general plans of archaeological research sites, the content of which, together with the comparison of art sources, allow to make assumptions about the existence of earlier cultural layers related to Fort Menshikov. to the period of the history of the Crimean Khanate before the annexation by the Russian Empire in 1783.
In the background of the video are the remains of the defensive wall “7 Bastion”, which stands on the remains of the wall of an earlier period. The image of the wall in photographs of the late XIX century, suggests that the earlier horizon of the wall was below the surface.
The search for the earliest images of this part of Sevastopol led to the publication of L’illustration: journal universel on October 13, 1855, and among other images of Sevastopol, after its occupation by Allied troops, there is an imprint of lithography depicting the so-called fortifications. “Fort Menshikov” with a building that is visually similar to the dyurbe .
In the continuation of the plot, the storm drains are shown on a rock base, which indicates their earlier origin than stated in the order for OKN “Fort Menshikov”. To an earlier period is a stone masonry on a rock base, judging by the video made on lime mortar.
There is a high probability that in this part of modern Sevastopol opposite Sara-Kermen (Chersonesos) was the fortress of Saloon, described by Evliya leelebi. “This city of Thessaloniki is located opposite the city of Sar Kerman, between them is the aforementioned bay.” Currently, construction on the town of Kryshtalevy has been suspended, but the archaeological heritage of this object for Ukraine has been lost.
Another project that threatens the archaeological heritage of Sevastopol is the construction of roads and their expansion, as it will take place at the expense of the Chersonese Choir. According to the draft “General Plan of Sevastopol”, published on the website of the so-called “Department of Architecture and Urban Planning of the city”, it is planned to expand by 2022 Komyshovo and Fiolentovskogo highways, and build a junction between them . Allotments № 149 and 185 (Autobat) were under construction .
According to Book 1 of the Explanatory Note to the General Plan, the width of the new road corridor of the Reed Highway should be 60 meters, and the Fiolent Highway – 35 meters north of the junction and 25 – south . Such widening of roads in the city will lead to large earthworks in the UNESCO site.
The construction project, which will start in 2020, is the creation of the Fedyukhina Vysota Military History Park. The archeological heritage sites “French camp of 1855-1856 on the Fedyukhy Heights” of the Crimean War period, “Tilki-Dere Cemetery”, which were discovered in 2017 and were not registered in Ukraine until 2014, are under construction. As part of the implementation of the target program for 2020 – 2020, the design and construction of sewage treatment plants “South” is planned.
Along with the completion of major construction projects in the occupied territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the number of permits issued by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation for excavations is gradually decreasing, from 136 in 2017, it decreased to 64 this year (November 2019). However, projects are planned for 2020, which also require certain earthworks: construction of power grid facilities on the territory of the Crimean peninsula; Reconstruction of the tunnel aqueduct of the Southern coast of Crimea, reconstruction of the Feodosiya-Sudak aqueduct; Construction and reconstruction of the sewer, Simferopol; Reconstruction of sewage treatment plants in the village. Almond (Sudak) with increasing capacity to 15 thousand cubic meters. m / day;design and construction of water supply tract from discharges into the North Crimean Canal to Feodosia and Kerch (2nd stage); Reconstruction and clearing of the Kutuzovsky reservoir; Reconstruction of hydraulic structures of the hydroelectric unit of the Front Reservoir, Republic of Crimea; Reconstruction of pumping station № 16, Feodosia reservoir; Construction of a regulated bypass structure and reconstruction of sections of the dividing dam of Lake Sasyk-Sivash; Measures for the construction of waste processing plants; Construction and reconstruction of the Simferopol-Krasnoperekopsk-Armyansk highway. In 2020, the implementation of the project for the construction of storage facilities for the reserve “Chersonese Tavriya” on the territory of the settlement, which will be preceded by large-scale excavations .
The greatest threat to cultural heritage sites in the Crimea and Sevastopol in 2020 – 2021 are the implementation of the 8th phase of construction of the Kerch-Sevastopol highway, overpasses in Sevastopol, some of which will take place in the buffer zone of the UNESCO site “Chersonesos Tavriya and its choir” and the so-called “Park of Living History” Fedyukhina Heights “.
In the struggle for the cultural heritage of the occupied territories, the Ukrainian authorities, not having the capacity and tools for preventive work, react ex post facto. One of the reasons, in addition to the lack of a system of cultural heritage protection of the annexed Crimea, is a lack of understanding of the internal logic of the system of protection of monuments, museums and archives, which was created on the peninsula after March 2014 by the Russian Federation. Lack of comprehensive work of public authorities on cultural heritage protection, comprehensive analysis of laws in force in the occupied Crimea,lack of understanding of the differences between Ukrainian and Russian systems of cultural heritage protection and limited participation of specialists and government agencies in monitoring the condition of monuments do not allow professional assessment. industry.The result of all this is the creation of a distorted view of the state of cultural heritage sites in the Crimea, and focusing on a limited range of violations that do not always threaten the monuments. On the other hand, the insufficient involvement of representatives of the national scientific community makes it impossible to assess the level of professionalism of archaeological work carried out on the peninsula, and the validity of their published results.
Denis YASHNY, Candidate of Historical Sciences
Photos from public sources
 “Socio-economic development of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol until 2022” approved by the Government of the Russian Federation dated 11.08.2014 №790
 Report on the activities of the State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea for 9 months of 2015 // https://gkokn.rk.gov.ru/ru/structure/178
 Report on the activities of the State Committee for the Protection of the Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Crimea for 9 months of 2015 // https://gkokn.rk.gov.ru/ru/structure/178
 Olkhovsky SV, Stepanov AV Rescue underwater excavations at the monument Bay of Ak-Burun // Archaeological discoveries. 2015 / Otv. ed. NV Lopatin. – Moscow: Institute of Archeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2017. – P. 285–288.
 Rukavishnikova IV, Menshikov M. Yu. Research of the ancient settlement Tasunovo 7. P. 238 – 239.
 Map of archaeological heritage sites included in the construction of the Kerch-Sevastopol highway
 List of monuments of local national importance located on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea // Republican Committee for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. – Simferopol, 2004. – P. 174–400.
 Guidelines for the design of the ground of railways and highways SN 449-72.
 Crimea – Tavrida. Archaeological research in the Crimea in 2017-2018. in 2 vols. – Moscow: Institute of Archeology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 2019. – Vol. 1. – 420 p.
 Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation dated April 5, 2016. № 762 // https://www.mkrf.ru/documents/o_vydache_razresheniy_otkrytykh_356166/?sphrase_id=2623901; Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation dated May 6, 2016 № 989 // https://www.mkrf.ru/documents/o_vydache_razresheniy_otkrytykh_356220/?sphrase_id=2623901
 Order of the Department of Protection of Cultural Heritage of the City of Sevastopol dated 27.12.2018 № 1181 “On the inclusion of an object with the characteristics of a cultural heritage site” Fort Menshikov “with a system of intra-complex objects “// https://sev.gov.ru/uookn/ detail.php? ID = 93201 & sphrase_id = 2268295
 L’illustration: journal universel. v.26 (July-Dec 1855). – October 13, 1855, p 244.
 Evliya леelebi. Travel book. Crimea and adjacent areas. (Excerpts from the work of a Turkish traveler of the XVII century). – Ed. 2nd, corrected and supplemented. – Simferopol: publishing house “FATE”, 2008. – P. 68.
 According to GM Nikolaenko “Choir of Chersonesos Tavria: Land Cadastre IV – III centuries. B.C”
 Draft Master Plan of the city of Sevastopol: Transport scheme // http: //www.xn--80aaelcrp9bdcqcnw.xn--p1ai/genplan/project/015
 Positive conclusion of the state examination № 5 98 -17 / гге-10865/05: Federal State Budgetary Institution of Culture “State Historical and Archaeological Museum-Reserve” Chersonesos Tauric “- construction of a storage facility and engineering networks at the address: Sevastopol, Gagarinsky district, Omega-2 microdistrict, between Pavel Korchagin Street, Chelnokov Street and Antichny Avenue (Sevastopol, Gagarin District, Omega-2a microdistrict, between Pavel Korchagin Street, Chelnokov Street and Antichny Avenue) .- 2017