Khan's Ukraine
Khan's Ukraine

Khan’s Ukraine


The winner of the Vyacheslav Chornovil Prize for the best journalistic work in the field of journalism in 2018 was a writer-publicist, member of the National Union of Journalists of Ukraine, editor-in-chief of the weekly “Culture and Life” Yevhen Buket for the article “Khan’s Ukraine” published in the newspaper “Crimean Room”. The article is an attempt by the author to understand the political processes that took place in Ukraine in the XVII-XVIII centuries. It talks about exciting events in national history, publishes little-known, interesting facts.

For a long time, historians have undeservedly downplayed the role of the southern territories of modern Ukraine in the processes of its state formation. This is not surprising, because the “legitimization” of the de jure separatist formation – the Moscow-based left-bank Hetmanate, which for several centuries engaged in Russian and Soviet historical science, could not allow thorough research of another state center of the Zaporozhian Army. In fact, the Cossack state under the protection of the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire had far more rights to the legacy of Bohdan Khmelnytsky than anyone else. But let’s try to understand the political processes that took place in Ukraine in the XVII – XVIII centuries, gradually.

Khan's Ukraine

As early as 1650, the government of the Ottoman Empire offered Bohdan Khmelnytsky to take over the protectorate of the Zaporozhian Army. Cossack Ukraine was to become a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, as Moldova, Wallachia, Transylvania and the Crimean Khanate. At the beginning of 1651, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, despite the opposition of the Ukrainian nobility and the higher clergy, accepted the Ottoman protectorate. The strategy of the Zaporozhian Army’s subordination to its neighbors (even those who were at enmity with each other) fit perfectly into the then model of international recognition of state formations. In particular, such a model, according to the commander of the Zaporozhian Army, did not allow any of the neighbors to absorb the country. However, then the agreement with the Ottoman Empire did not enter into force because the eight-year at the time of its conclusion, Sultan Megmed IV Osman could not yet influence politics,and the anti-Ukrainian party prevailed.

It should be noted that Megmed was brought to power by B. Khmelnytsky, who staged a palace coup in Constantinople (Ukrainian janissaries conspired with the mother of the future sultan and killed his father). And Megmed’s mother was Nadiya Turhan Hatice, a Ukrainian from Poltava, who had some political influence on her only son. According to eyewitnesses, Megmed IV was “like a Cossack.”

Signing on January 20, 1667 in the village. Andrusov near Smolensk, a separate truce between the Moscow Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth intensified the above-mentioned diplomatic strategy. The Andrusiv Peace consolidated the forcible division of ethnic Ukrainian territory into two parts – Right-Bank and Left-Bank Ukraine. The understanding of Muscovy and Poland due to the division of the territory of the Cossack state led to the growth of political influence in Ukrainian society of the Cossack officers, who relied on the support of the Ottoman Empire and the Crimean Khanate on the basis of the agreement of Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

In July 1667, Hetman Petro Doroshenko initiated negotiations with the government of the Ottoman Empire to establish a military-political union. In January 1668 a decision was made at the council of elders in Chyhyryn: “On both sides of the Dnieper the inhabitants should be united and live separately and pay tribute to the Turkish Tsar and the Crimean Khan, just as the Prince of Wallachia pays at hand. The Great Sovereign of Moscow and His Majesty will not be here from now on. “

Subsequently, the government of P. Doroshenko put forward the following conditions of citizenship to the Ottoman ruler and the dependent Crimean khan: first, Ukraine should not pay tribute; secondly, the sultan has no right to remove the hetman, who was elected by the general council; thirdly, Turkish and Tatar troops sent to Ukraine must be under the command of the hetman; fourth, the lands occupied by Ukrainian-Turkish units are ceded to the Hetmanate, and the sultan must not build fortresses there and keep troops there; fifth, the borders of the Ukrainian Hetmanate as a result of joint actions should reach Przemyśl, Minsk and Putivl; sixth, the sultan and khan have no right to enter into alliances with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Moscow State without the consent of the hetman; seventh,The patriarch of Constantinople must be freely elected by the council of bishops, and he will remain on the throne until his death.

On March 11, 1668, at the General Council of the Zaporozhian Army near Korsun, the “citizenship of the Sultan” was officially proclaimed, like the dependence on the Porte of the Wallachian and Moldavian principalities. Doroshenko received from the Turkish Sultan Megmed IV the title of Bey of the Ukrainian Sandzak.

Also in October 1667, Hetman Petro Doroshenko signed an agreement with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, according to which the western border of the Zaporozhian Army was fixed on the Goryn River, and in 1668 he recaptured the Left Bank from Moscow, and on June 8 of that year

However, Petro Doroshenko’s government “cracked at the seams” due to the geopolitical games of Muscovy and the Commonwealth. Thus, with the active financial support of Poles and, apparently, Muscovites, the Crimean Khan Adil Geray, without the knowledge of Megmed IV, launched his protege Peter Sukhoviy into politics. Some historians count the beginning of Khan’s Ukraine from him, but this is not the case. The social demagoguery of the latter (and he was a brilliant speaker) gave him many supporters, including in the Sich. Being an agent of the enemy from the beginning and having the task of undermining the Ottoman-Hetman agreement from within, on October 7, 1668, “Hetman of Khan’s Majesty” Petro Sukhoi issued a “patriotic” universal to the entire Ukrainian people and began military action against Doroshenko with the support of the Tatars.However, the calls of the “Tatar” pseudo-hetman were ignored by most of the Cossack officers and his military campaign was unsuccessful.

Khan's UkraineOn March 3, 1669, the acting left-bank hetman Demyan Mnogohrishny recognized the supremacy of the Moscow tsar and, having signed the Glukhov Articles restricting the rights of the Zaporozhian Army, gained power over part of the Left Bank.

And in July 1669 another hetman appeared on the Right Bank of Ukraine. He became the Uman colonel Mykhailo Khanenko, who was proclaimed the leader of the Zaporozhian Army “on behalf of the Polish king” after the complete defeat of Sukhoviy.

Thus, collaborationists led by Khanenko and Sukhoviy, who changed the khan’s mace to the position of general secretary of the Propolis Cossacks, and separatists Mnohohrishny acted against Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army Petro Doroshenko. Their goal was the same: to call for the unification of Ukraine to destroy the Cossack state as soon as possible.

So Doroshenko turned to the sultan for help. Ambassador Ali Ktuji presented the Zaporozhian Army with a message from Megmed IV Osman, which stated: “I am sending you a bunchuk and a banner not for citizenship, but only as a sign of friendship and fear of our enemies… and that no one should devastate it. “

The sultan soon overthrew the Crimean khan Adil Geray, who by that time was already openly supporting the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. And in September 1670 Petro Doroshenko as a sandzakbey of the Turkish sultan began the struggle with Mikhail Khanenko.

The Buchach Peace Treaty, an agreement between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, concluded on October 18, 1672 in and around Buchach, had a decisive influence on the further development of events. Under this treaty, the Kamyanets-Podilskyi Eyalet, which covered the territory of the former Podolsk, Mohyliv, and partly Bratslav and Uman regiments of Cossack Ukraine, came under the sultan’s direct authority. This administrative unit existed under the sultan’s rule until 1699. He headed the newly created Turkish province of Beylerbey, which was appointed in Istanbul. Eyalet was divided into sanjaks, which were subordinated to smaller districts – nahiya. Initially, the Kamyanets, Barsky and Yazlovetsky sandzhaks were formed, and a little later – the Medzhibizhsky sandzhaks.

Under the Treaty of Buchach of 1672, the state of the Zaporozhian Army “within the old borders” (Bratslav and Kyiv voivodeships) again passed under Doroshenko’s mace. But the Polish Sejm did not recognize the Buchach Treaty. Because of this, in 1673 a new Polish-Turkish war for Ukraine began, which ended with the signing on October 17, 1676 of the Zhuravne Peace Treaty, which weakened the conditions of Buchach.

In addition, the territory of the Zaporozhian Army in early 1674 began an offensive by Moscow troops. Under the pressure of their siege of the capital Chyhyryn on September 9, 1676, Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army Petro Doroshenko swore allegiance to the Moscow tsar before the mayor G. Kosachev. Ten days later, Doroshenko, together with 2,000 Cossacks, arrived at the camp of the left-bank hetman Ivan Samoilovich and the boyar Hryhoriy Romodanovsky, where he gave the left-bank hetman two maces and other jewels that the sultan had once sent him. It was then that the left-bank “separatist” Hetmanate absorbed the state of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Army, and the leader of the pro-Moscow Cossacks began to bear the title of Doroshenko – “Hetman of both sides of the Dnieper.” In addition, to deprive the Right Bank of human resources,In 1678-1679, Ivan Samoilovich carried out the first forced deportation of the population in Ukrainian history, which remained in history under the name “The Great Detachment”. All 11 right-bank regiments were relocated to the Cossacks and the Commonwealth. Samoilovich reported on the results of the operation to Moscow, to the Malorossiysky Order: their villages, where they used to live on the other side, are all burned to the ground. “Moshen, Drabov, Belozersk, Tagankov, Cherkasy were driven to this side and removed from the enemy, and their towns and villages, towns and villages, where they previously lived on that side, were all burned to the ground. “Moshen, Drabov, Belozersk, Tagankov, Cherkasy were driven to this side and removed from the enemy, and their towns and villages, towns and villages, where they previously lived on that side, were all burned to the ground. “
However, the government of Megmed IV continued to waive its obligations. In 1676, immediately after receiving news of P. Doroshenko’s capitulation, Sultan Megmed IV conferred on Yuri Khmelnytsky the title of “Prince of Ukraine and leader of the Zaporozhian Army.” In 1677-1681, supporting Yu. Khmelnytsky, he waged a war with Ukrainian troops against Muscovy for the Left Bank of Ukraine, which, unfortunately, was unsuccessful and ended with the conclusion of the Bakhchisaray Peace Treaty of 1681 for a period of 20 years.

Khan's UkraineAfter signing this agreement, Megmed IV appointed the Moldavian ruler George III Dooku as hetman of the Right Bank of Ukraine. In this way, the sultan reaffirmed his firm intention to establish the influence of the Ottoman Empire in Ukraine and once again testified to the recognition of state autonomy of most of the Right Bank. Duka turned to traditional forms of local administration, appointing Ivan Drahynych as acting hetman and reviving the Cossack regiments in sub-Ottoman Ukraine. The Cossack council near Nemyriv elected their leaders. I. Hubar-Bershadsky (Gubarenko), Cherkasy – Vergun, Chyhyrynsky – Umanets (according to other sources, Hrymbashevsky), Bila Tserkva – Stefan Kunytsky became colonels of the Korsun Regiment. The latter in July 1683 on behalf of the council of the right-bank Cossacks asked for the rule of the Polish king, for which he received from him the post of hetman.

About these troubled times, when for the war-ravaged Right Bank Ukraine, where lived, figuratively speaking, two Ukrainians, fought three masters of the mace divided by external enemies of the Cossacks, the people made a proverb: “For two Ukrainians – three hetmans.”

At the end of 1683, at the beginning of another 16-year Polish-Turkish war, an army of five thousand led by the pro-Polish Hetman Kunitsky marched through the Moldavian lands to the steppes of Budzha and Belgorod. The pro-Polish Cossacks defeated the vassals of the Ottoman Empire, but in early 1684 they themselves were defeated in Moldavia. However, the military campaign of Hetman Stefan Kunitsky, which took place in the winter of 1683-1684, became widely known in many countries and entered world history. This campaign was an important part of the policy of Christian monarchs in Europe to defend against the expansionist intentions of the Ottoman Empire. Also during this campaign, the Moldavian ruler and hetman of sub-Ottoman Ukraine, Gheorghe Dooku, was taken prisoner.

In the summer of 1684, Sultan Megmed IV proclaimed the Cossack Colonel Teodor Sulimenko (Sulimka) the new Hetman of Ukraine (according to the treaties of Zhuravne and Bakhchisaray). It is from the beginning of the hetmanship of this mace owner that we can talk about the establishment of the territorial formation of Khan Ukraine. We can say this in view of the following factors: first, the hetman was appointed at the urging of the Crimean khan, and secondly, he began his activities from the left bank of Transnistria (his residence was Yagorlyk), controlled by the khanate.

In November 1684, Sulimenko, together with the 6,000-strong Tatar army of Khan Selim-Girey I’s son and the janissary unit, tried for about three weeks to recapture the Nemyriv Fortress from the pro-Polish Hetman Andriy Mohyla, but was unable to do so. Eventually, after several more unsuccessful campaigns against the Nemyriv and Bratslav Cossacks, Sulimenko defeated A. Mohyla near Yahorlyk, and the khan’s hetman himself was captured and sent as a gift to the Polish king in Yavoriv, ​​where he was apparently executed.

Khan's UkraineAfter that, the Ottoman leadership decided to “besiege the Cossack under Hetman Samchenko” instead of the failed Sulimka. And the khan’s son ordered the new hetman Yakym Samchenko to reach Nemyriv in 12 days and gave 20,000 of his men to help them conquer the right-bank capital together with the Cossacks. But this military action also ended in failure. During another attack on Nemyriv in late 1685, Samchenko was killed.

Immediately after Samchenko’s death, the Turkish sultan, at the suggestion of the Crimean khan, appointed Stepan Lozynsky hetman of the Turkish part of the Right Bank, who chose the short and clear Cossack nickname Stetsyk. With the permission of the khan and the Moldavian master, he, imitating T. Sulimka, settled in Yahorlyk. It was from there that the new hetman carried out constant attacks on Ukrainian lands to recapture them from the proteges of Poland. Almost all military campaigns of Colonel Semyon Paliy of Fastiv at the end of the 17th century were directed against Stetsyk Yahorlytsky.

Stepan Lozynsky died of his wounds in November 1695. His successor was Ivan the Rich. In 1698, during the march of the left-bank regiments to the Black Sea coast, a letter from Ivan the Rich “Hetman by Khan’s mercy” appeared among the Cossacks. In it, he called on the Left Bank to renounce Moscow’s protection and asked them why they so faithfully served “those Jewish Muscovites,” because they “with the help of your work and your courage” are strengthening their state.

On May 26, 1692, the former clerk of the General Military Chancellery of the Zaporozhian Army Petro Ivanenko, or Sulima (the mocking nickname “Petryk” was fixed by Moscow sources) on behalf of the “Specific Principality of Kyiv, Chernihiv and the entire Zaporozhian Army” eternal peace and brotherhood, and common defense against Moscow and Poland. ” The Crimean khan recognized Peter Sulim as hetman of Ukraine and provided him with military assistance in the confrontation with Moscow’s troops. In the summer of the same year, a horde of 20,000 with “Petryk” Cossacks moved to Poltava region.
“God sees that not for my own glory, but for the integrity and defense of our Ukrainian land, for the multiplication and protection of the liberties of the Zaporozhian grassroots and city Army and for free military booty on the Dnieper, I started this business,” Petro Sulima wrote in his letters. residents of the Left Bank of Ukraine.

However, the anti-Moscow uprising was unsuccessful. Subsequent campaigns, which took place for several years in a row, were also not victorious. Modern researchers are inclined to believe that Petro Ivanenko’s actions were part of Hetman Ivan Mazepa’s secret plan to separate the Hetmanate from Muscovy, which the leading part of the Ukrainian generals had known about since early 1691. Petryk’s letters to the Cossacks, dated to the first half of the 1690s, are almost identical to Mazepa’s later statements, and the text of his treaty with the Crimean khan of 1692 and P. Orlyk’s treaty with Turkey of 1711-1712 also have much in common: the southern ally not to interfere in the internal life, freedoms of the Cossacks, not to take from merchants additional taxes, duties, to act together during hostilities, etc.

Khan's UkraineIn 1696 Petro Ivanenko found himself on the territory of Khan’s Ukraine. In November 1698, two captured Wallachians testified in an order in Little Russia that in the summer in Dubossary he was elected hetman of the “cursed Petrik,” with no more than 200 military men. And the previous Hetman Ivan the Rich was removed from the hetmanship due to his commitment to Christians.
According to the Karlovy Vary Peace Treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, signed on January 16, 1699, the entire territory of Right-Bank Ukraine was returned to the king, and the position of “Ukrainian hetman serving in the Ottoman Porte now residing in Wallachia “was to be canceled. In June of the same year, the Warsaw Sejm passed a resolution on the liquidation of Cossack regiments in Kyiv and Bratslav voivodships. They had to disband the Cossack army within two weeks. This decision was motivated by the fact that after the end of the war with Turkey there was no need to keep the Cossack regiments on the Right Bank. The Peace of Karlovy Vary upset the Cossacks on the entire right bank: both in Poland and in Khan’s Ukraine.

In March 1702, the Cossack council in Fastiv announced the restoration of the free Cossack state of the Zaporozhian Army. Samylo Ivanovych Samus publicly renounced the title “Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army of His Royal Grace” and was elected “Hetman of Ukraine.” Samus stated that he would stop the fight only when “across the whole of Ukraine, from the Dnieper to the Dniester and up to the river Slucha, there will be no Lyad’s foot.” It is obvious that it was at this council that the Transnistrian Cossacks of Khan’s Ukraine, represented by the former Khan’s hetman (because by this time the post was to be abolished) Petro Ivanenko (Sulima), and the officers supported the insurgents and handed over their jewels to Samyil Samus.

On June 15, 1704, near Pavolochche, Hetman S. Samus renounced the mace in favor of “His Majesty [H] Mercy Mr. Hetman Mazepa”, and he was appointed Boguslav Colonel. It is interesting that Ivan Mazepa appointed Hryhoriy Ivanovy Ivanenko, a former colonel of Dubossary, the son of the former hetman of Khan Ukraine Ivan the Rich Ionenko, as a colonel of Bratslav. Khan’s Ukraine was part of a united Ukraine under the mace of “Hetman of both sides of the Dnieper” Ivan Mazepa in 1704-1708.

Hetman Mazepa during these years strengthened the fortifications of Bila Tserkva, moved here part of the Hetman’s jewels and his treasures. Given that the Mazep family comes from the Bila Tserkva region, we can assume that, following the example of Khmelnytsky, he planned to make here, in his own ancestral home, a permanent residence of the hetman and the Ukrainian government. However, the events of 1708-1709 interrupted these dreams of Mazepa…

When Stanislaw Leszczynski, a Polish ally of King Charles XII of Sweden, threatened to attack Ukraine, Mazepa turned to Peter I for help. During a military meeting in Zhovkva, Hetman Mazepa asked the tsar to provide him with 10,000 Moscow soldiers to defend Ukraine’s borders. To this the suzerain replied to the vassal that “not only 10,000 but also ten men I cannot give; how can you defend yourself. ” Thus, the hetman had a formal reason for the realization of secret intentions to separate the Hetmanate. The tsar violated the obligation to defend Ukraine from the “hated Poles”, which was the basis of all Ukrainian-Moscow agreements since 1654.

On October 28, 1708, when Charles XII, who was on his way to Moscow and returned to Ukraine due to food problems, Mazepa signed an alliance agreement with him. The content of the agreement of 1708 in the translation of Pylyp Orlyk is as follows: Ukraine and the lands annexed to it must be free and independent; the King of Sweden undertakes to protect them from all enemies; in particular, the king must send auxiliary troops there immediately when necessary and when the hetman and his estates (Etats) so demand. Everything conquered on the territory of Russia, but once belonging to the Russian (Ukrainian) people, should be returned to the Principality of Ukraine; Mazepa was to be a Ukrainian prince or a life hetman; after his death, the general council (“states”) was to elect a new hetman; the Swedish king had no right to appropriate the title or coat of arms of the Principality of Ukraine.

Khan's UkraineUpon learning of Mazepa’s transition to the Swedish side, Tsar Peter I of Moscow ordered Prince Alexander Menshikov to destroy the hetman’s capital. Menshikov broke into the residence of Hetman Mazepa Baturyn with troops and razed it to the ground. According to various sources, as a result of the Baturyn tragedy on November 2, 1708, 11 to 15 thousand people died, regardless of age and sex.

Baturyn’s tragic fate was a great blow to the Ukrainian cause. The Swedish participant in the campaign of 1708-1709, Colonel Count Illenstierna, wrote: the Swedes decided to revolt, stayed at home, but the vast majority of the troops that came to the Swedes with Mazepa, went to the enemy, and this caused us great shortcomings and obstacles in all our later actions. Mazepa remained loyal to a large part of the right-bank Cossacks (betrayed only by the Bila Tserkva regiment), the Poltava regiment on the Left Bank (Colonel – General Bunchuzhny Fedor Myrovych) and the Zaporozhian Sich led by Kost Gordienko.
All means of terror, mental and physical – propaganda, promises and threats, the election of a new “separatist” hetman, civil ceremonies and church rites, anathemas, humiliation and bullying, punishment in various forms and the most cruel to the imagination of torture and execution, sword and fire – all threw Moscow in 1708 against Hetman Mazepa and his associates, and at the same time against all the aspirations of the Ukrainian people to freedom and independence. And this remained an iron tradition of Moscow imperialism until the current XXI century.

In May 1709, Moscow troops carried out another punitive expedition: they destroyed many Ukrainian settlements on the Left Bank and destroyed the Zaporozhian Sich. Finally, on June 27, 1709, the Battle of Poltava took place. The winner was Muscovy, as a result of which Sweden’s plans to subjugate Northern Europe failed. Fleeing defeat from persecution by the Moscow cavalry, Mazepa and Charles XII found refuge in Khan’s Ukraine. On the night of September 21-22, 1709, Ivan Mazepa died near the town of Bendery in the village of Varnytsia. Here he was buried. Later reburied in the cathedral of the monastery of St. George in Galatia.

The hetman was followed to Khan’s Ukraine by about 50 leading officers, almost 500 Cossacks from the Left Bank, and more than 4,000 Sich members. This was the force that led the further struggle for state independence of the Zaporozhian Army.

On April 5, 1710, Pylyp Orlyk, the general secretary of the Zaporizhzhya Army, was elected Hetman of Ukraine at the Cossack council near Bendery. The election took place in the presence of the general foreman, the right-bank Cossacks, the Sich, as well as the sultan of the Ottoman Empire and the king of Sweden. The council approved the “Treaties and Resolutions of the Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporozhian Army between His Excellency Mr. Philip Orlyk, the newly elected Hetman of the Zaporozhian Army, and between the General Sergeant, Colonels, and the so-called Zaporozhian Army, which according to ancient customs and military by a vote and the Clairvoyant Hetman was solemnly sworn in. ” It was one of the first European constitutions of modern times.

Khan's UkraineOn December 1, 1710, a meeting was held at the Swedish monarch’s residence in Bender with the participation of Hetman P. Orlyk, Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey, and Y. Potocki, a representative of S. Leszczynski, where a future military operation to seize Ukraine was agreed upon. Immediately after this meeting, Orlyk sent his representatives to Ukraine, who distributed Hetman’s universals to the population, calling for recognition of his rule and the transition to a Swedish protectorate.

The main military action in the Right Bank of Ukraine began on January 31, 1711, when the Cossacks with their basket Kost Gordienko and both leaders, Orlyk and Potocki, left Bender. Not far from Rashkov, they joined forces with the Poles who had left Yas and with the Budzhats-Belgorod horde under the command of Sultan Megmet-Geray (the second son of the Crimean khan). There were about 8,000 Poles and Cossacks together; hordes were 20 000-30 000.
Near Rashkov’s army moved to the territory of the Right Bank of Ukraine and quickly began to move forward. In mid-February, it was located in a wide area between Nemyriv, Bratslav and Vinnytsia. Unfortunately, already in the spring this military campaign ended with the defeat of Orlyk.
Nevertheless, Philip Orlyk and the Cossacks on the side of Turkey played an important role in the defeat of the Muscovy in the Prut campaign in the summer of 1711. Hopes for the revival of the Zaporozhian Army on both banks of the Dnieper reappeared, but the events of the next few years dashed Orlyk’s hopes.

In the 20s of December 1711 – February 1712, the Moscow army and the left-bank Cossacks forcibly deported from the Right-Bank Ukraine more than 100 thousand people. The process was not limited to evictions – military units destroyed and burned farms (especially homes) so that the exiles could not return, and resorted to requisitioning cattle and grain. It was revenge on Ukrainians for supporting Hetman Orlyk’s recent campaign and at the same time an action aimed at depriving Orlyk of human resources for the future struggle. The detachment coincided with the withdrawal of Moscow troops from the Right Bank under the terms of the Prut Peace.

At the beginning of 1712, Colonel of the Uman Regiment of the Zaporozhian Army Ivan Popovych again occupied Uman and the shores of the Southern Bug, and Danylo Sytynsky returned to Korsun. In total, about 4,000 Cossacks from Orlykiv began to rebuild the devastated and depopulated lands of the Right Bank of Ukraine. Cossack regiments were formed in Chyhyryn, Yahorlyk, Vinnytsia, Nemyriv, and Rashkiv. At the same time, Patriarch Chrysanth of Jerusalem was planned to be appointed to the “Cossack Patriarchate.” K. Gordienko distributed universals stating that he, as the ataman of the Zaporozhian Army, would protect the population.

But the power of the Zaporozhian Army did not last long on the Right Bank. As early as December 1713, 20 Polish crown soldiers and several infantry battalions of the Kamenets castellan Kalinowski marched from Uman against the infantry and poorly equipped Cossack forces. About 1,660 Cossacks were killed and executed in clashes near Pohrebyshche, Nemyriv, and Fastiv. In February 1714, some units of Serdyuks and cavalry Cossacks retreated to the Left Bank, where they folded their yellow and Kumach banners with crosses sewn at the mercy of Hetman Skoropadsky. The rest of the Cossacks, who did not hope for pardon from the tsar, retreated to the south, to Oleshkivska Sich, founded in Tatar possessions.

On April 22, 1714, the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth signed a peace in Constantinople, leaving Right-Bank Ukraine behind Poland, which meant the final collapse of Hetman Orlyk’s plans to create a Cossack state. Due to the Turkish-Polish agreements, the Ukrainian Hetman was forced to completely withdraw his troops from the Right Bank. In October 1714, Charles XII left the Ottoman Empire for Sweden. He was followed by Pylyp Orlyk with his family and close circle.

After the signing of the Peace of Constantinople and the departure of Hetman Philip Orlyk to Sweden in November 1714, the Grand Vizier ordered the Crimean khan to forbid the Cossacks under penalty of death to enter into disputes with the Poles for the Right Bank Ukraine. That is why Khan’s Ukraine, the center of which has now moved to the Oleshkiv Sich, has chosen the tactics of guerrilla warfare for Right-Bank Ukraine. Since then, “Haydamatsky detachments” have become a daily occurrence in all parts of the Ukrainian voivodships of the Rzeczpospolita. But after the departure of the hetman, Khan’s Ukraine declined as a state entity. In 1725-1728, the Edisan horde was relocated between the Dniester and Southern Bug rivers. Since then, these lands are increasingly called not Khan’s Ukraine, but Edisan. Oleshkivska Sich was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire until 1734,after which the Cossacks under the terms of the Lubny Treaty moved to Russian protection, founding the New Sich. After the death of Hetman Orlyk and the defeat of the liberation wars of 1734-1738 and 1750-1752, the post of Hetman of Khan Ukraine (“Hetman of Wallachia”, “Hetman of Dubossary”) was combined with the post of kaimakan of the Nogai hordes. It has been occupied by the Lithuanian Tatar Jakub-aga Lek (Jacob Rudzevych) since the 1750s, whose residence was the town of Dubossary.

Cossack units of Khan’s Ukraine, which did not belong to the Sich, even under Sultan Ahmed III (until 1730) were united into a separate regiment consisting of 40 huts. His lands were the Danube (Budjak and Dobrudja). It was headed by a colonel or ataman, who received honors and attributions of the pasha. The Cossacks had a blue-red flag: on a red background a crescent moon and a silver star above it, and on a blue background a golden cross of the Eastern Church. The banner was consecrated by the Patriarch of Constantinople. This regiment was most likely the intellectual center of the Haydamat movement in the 18th century. Having in its history the transition of Ukraine to Turkey under Doroshenko, citizenship of Mazepa, Orlyk, etc., this unit fought for the restoration of the state of the Zaporozhian Army and later formed the basis of the Transdanubian Sich.

At that time, Yakub-aga was actively working for Russian intelligence, which ensured his loyalty on the part of the Russian border authorities and a constant monetary reward in the form of a regular pension from Russia. The Crimean khan, unaware of Yakub-aga’s shameful intentions, also gave him patronage and support in every possible way.

In 1770, with the mediation of Yakub-aga, the Yiddish Horde of 8,000 men, with all their sultans, murzas, and officers, took Russian citizenship. The population was moved in 1771 to the Kuban, and in 1790 – in the interfluve of the Milky Waters and the Byrd.

Yakub-aga made a significant contribution to the process of joining the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire, for which he received in early 1784 the rank of collegiate adviser with the rights of the Russian nobility. But he was unable to take advantage of these “privileges” because he died in Akmechet on October 22 of that year.
Edisan (Khan’s Ukraine) under the Kyuchuk-Kaynardzhiy Treaty of 1774 remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Finally, the territory of Khan’s Ukraine was annexed to the Russian Empire under the terms of the Iasi Peace Treaty, concluded on December 29, 1791 (January 9, 1792 – AD), after the end of the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1791 . But the Ukrainian Cossacks continued their organized life a few decades later in the Transdanubian Sich.

The project was implemented with the support of the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation

Eugene Buket

Ukrainian local historian, editor-in-chief of the newspaper "Culture and Life", laureate of the Oles Honchar International Prize (2008) and the Vyacheslav Chornovol Prize for the best journalistic work in the field of journalism (2018). Honorary Local Historian of Ukraine (2016)

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