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Both the history and the fate of the monuments to Shevchenko in the Crimea
As noted in previous materials, many even in mainland Ukraine believe that Ukrainians in the Crimea appeared if not at the dawn of Ukrainian independence in 1991, then at least with the transfer of Crimea to the USSR in 1954. However, in these intelligence it was noted that Ukrainians lived in the Crimea in the twentieth century, in the nineteenth, and long before that. Even the first monument to the People’s Poet of Ukraine Taras Shevchenko in the Crimea appeared not in the 1990s, and not even in the middle, but in the early twentieth century. – in 1900 or 1901, at the Alchevsky dacha in Mishor. The sculpture was made in the studio of Volodymyr Beklemishev – earlier, in 1899, a marble bust of Kobzar was created in it, which was installed in the Kharkiv estate of the Alchevskys and became the first monument to Shevchenko in Ukraine. Unfortunately,Neither the Crimean sculpture of Shevchenko more than a century ago nor the dacha itself, which was destroyed in 1920 during the Wrangel occupation of the peninsula, have survived.
It is certainly difficult to establish when the next monument to Kobzar appeared in the Crimea. Similarly, researchers do not agree on the exact date of the first stationary cinema in Simferopol and the Crimea, which was named after Shevchenko in 1954: 1904, 1910, 1915 or 1916. At least, the sources state that the cinema opened in 1904 on Dvoryanska Street under the somewhat strange name “Bayan”; in 1915 the building acquired a modern look. Under Soviet rule, the cinema was called “Star of the Revolution” and “Bolshevik”. It is possible that in 1954 a bust of Shevchenko appeared in the lobby of the cinema. In June 2015, Anatoliy Zhilin, a deputy of the State Council of the Republic of Crimea, during a “meeting of the Committee on Culture and Cultural Heritage Protection” initiated the return of the Shevchenko Cinema to its original name:Kobzar was not just a “supporter of the national movement in Ukraine,” but also a man “very hostile to the Russian Empire,” so now. However, fortunately, a month later they decided to abandon this initiative, based solely on the economic activities of the cinema.
Debates in the “Russian” Crimea are sometimes caused by the monument to Shevchenko in Simferopol, located in front of the arch of the park named after Kobzar on Sevastopolskaya Street. It was installed in 1997 as a gift to Simferopol from Kalush in Ivano-Frankivsk region instead of the sculpture that was installed in 1964 on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Shevchenko at the intersection of the park alleys. The modern bust is called “an object of cultural heritage of the Republic of Crimea of regional significance”.
Prior to the Russian occupation of Crimea, monuments to Shevchenko in the large cities of the peninsula became a “collection point” for the Ukrainian community on the occasion of certain holidays – not only timed to the anniversary of Kobzar’s birth or anniversary. Both official and public events took place near them. However, since March 2014, it is only necessary to lay flowers at the monument to Shevchenko – as he is surrounded by occupation security forces with paddy wagons and water cannons.
Ukraine’s Independence Day in 2014 in Crimea turned into a real hunt for pro-Ukrainian citizens. That day in Simferopol there was a large number of security officers patrolling the city. The reinforced patrol was exhibited in the Shevchenko Park. Police officers did not officially comment on the increased precautionary measures, but unofficially admitted that the reason was Independence Day: they say that “the authorities do not want provocations.” In the morning, the police received a report that the park had been mined, after which several dozen “policemen” arrived on the scene and blocked the roads to the park; “law enforcement officers” did not allow anyone wishing to enter its territory. Activists who took part in laying flowers reported that they were not allowed to approach the bust, almost grabbed their hands, and were only allowed to lay flowers quickly. As it became known later,a water cannon was spotted in the bushes in Shevchenko Park: apparently, the “police” were preparing to disperse the demonstration by force.
Meanwhile, local “patriots” divorced about “bandits with Ukrainian flags” who go to the “horrible black monument donated by the Lviv City Hall (?), The place around which has become a habit for Bandera provocations”; it was predicted that “freaks in embroidered shirts will sooner or later take up knives.”
However, the reaction is reversed. On Taras Shevchenko’s birthday, an inadequate elderly citizen attacked children dressed in embroidered shirts near the monument to the poet in Simferopol; at the same time, the “police” who were nearby did not react. At the same time, one of the leaders of the Crimean monarchists, journalist of the newspaper “New Crimea” Alexei Vasiliev proposed to demolish the monument to “goblin” Shevchenko in Simferopol, and instead install a monument to the shot in Kiev publicist-Ukrainophobe Oles Buzhina as a symbol of “all fields in the struggle against Ukrainian Nazism. ” The discussion about this statement divided people into three groups: most called the statement blasphemous, others took the provocative idea “with a bang”, and still others suggested moving the bust of Taras Shevchenko to another place and installing a monument to Buzyna in its place.
In 2015, on the Independence Day of Ukraine, journalists from the camera crew of the Inter TV channel, who arrived at the Shevchenko Park in Simferopol, were taken to the “central regional police department” for half an hour to identify persons; Several pro-Ukrainian activists were detained at the same place while laying flowers at the monument to Shevchenko without explanation, and they were also forcibly taken to the “department” without a report on their delivery. The day before, unknown people tore a bouquet of flowers, which was laid at the monument to Kobzar in honor of the Day of the State Flag of Ukraine. The next day, security officers present at the Shevchenko monument photographed the faces of people laying flowers and took notes in their notebooks.
On October 14, 2015, on the feast of the Intercession of the Blessed Virgin, when Ukraine officially celebrated the Day of the Defender of Ukraine for the first time, in Simferopol PPS units surrounded the monument to Shevchenko in the morning. to the Kobzar a large number of flowers on the occasion of the holidays. According to one of the city’s public utilities workers, when reconstruction and cleaning work began in the park at about 7:30 a.m., several “police” officers and plainclothes men were spotted near the monument; about an hour security officers dispersed. The flowers near the monument remained untouched.
In 2016, Simferopol officially laid flowers to the monument to Shevchenko, despite the state of emergency, organized by Ukrainian and Belarusian “national-cultural autonomies” with the support of the House of Friendship of Peoples and the State Committee for International Relations and Deportees. citizens of the Republic of Crimea “. In the morning, residents of Simferopol brought flowers to the monument to Shevchenko in a disorganized manner, but they were immediately removed by representatives of public utilities; such actions caused outrage on the part of the city’s residents, who demanded that the flowers be returned to their places. At the same time, the “police” tried to check the documents of the people dressed in embroidered shirts and escort them to the “police station”. In July, unknown people painted a mustache on Shevchenko’s monument in yellow and blue,also drawing on the pedestal a trident and a stencil inscription “Glory to Ukraine”. Since then, the monument is under video surveillance.
March 9, 2017 near the bust of Kobzar in Simferopol with the permission of the local “authorities” and under the auspices of the “Assembly of Slavic Peoples of Crimea” (ASNK). An event was held on the occasion of the 203rd anniversary of Taras Shevchenko’s birth, which has become a traditional for Russia barracks “event” “for a tick”, lined up and laying flowers to the monument as a team. Then, during the presentation of the Shevchenko Prize, President Petro Poroshenko reminded that in Crimea before his Russian occupation, “conscious Ukrainians gathered near the monuments to Taras Shevchenko, and pro-Moscow and Moscow mercenaries and agents – near the monuments to Lenin.” “Look at the different worlds, the different civilizations – Shevchenko and Lenin. I am sure that today there will be brave patriots who will come to him on this day in the occupied territory. “, – he emphasized. In fact, in the largest cities of the Crimea, where there are still monuments to Shevchenko, near their pedestals, concerned citizens alone left bouquets – often composed of blue and yellow flowers. One of such compositions, decorated with a ribbon with the inscription “Happy Anniversary – from Ukrainians”, was left near the bust of Kobzar in Simferopol by activists of the local Ukrainian Cultural Center, who had previously been refused by the city “administration” to approve the event and warn of responsibility for extremist activities. »From local police officers. After the liturgy, a memorial service for the Ukrainian national prophet was held in the UOC-KP cathedral (now the PCU) and poems by Shevchenko and about Shevchenko were read. At the same time the figure of ASNK Evgeny Kostylov on the page on a social network complained,that it was not in vain that his grandfathers killed Ukrainians during World War II; near the monument to Shevchenko, he talked about Ukraine, “occupied by the Banderas” (!), and about “some” Ukrainian-language works by Kobzar, who lived in “Little Russia” and “wanted unity and cohesion throughout the Russian land.”
In October 2017, the publication “Crimean Truth” published a material about the “International Congress of Representatives of Ukrainian Diasporas”, which took place in the Crimea the day before. The press release of the event was accompanied by a sharp comment from editorial staff member Valentyna Vasylieva. “Tell me: why do we need Taras Shevchenko? Why do we need a park named after him, a cinema, a horrible monument that the Bandera people from Galicia pinned on us? ”- she asked, arguing that the “idol” of Kobzar was created “by the Bolsheviks together with Ukrainian nationalists” (!), And the real Shevchenko, according to the already mentioned “wonderful Kyiv writer” Buzyna, was “a mediocre artist, a kind of poet, drunkard and a terrible Russophobe who thought and wrote prose in Russian. ” At the same time, Vasilieva stated that “there is a wonderful part of Greater Russia called Little Russia (Ukraine), which has its own folklore, traditions and one history with us, and everything else – from the evil one,” and added that a quarter of a century “Crimean Truth” fought with the cursed Ukrainians. ”
In February 2018, an article by Mykola Orlov, a member of the Yalta Anti-Fascist Committee, appeared on the Crimean Echo reactionary resource under the headline “Changing Ukrainians to Little Russians.” Describing the “idols of Ukrainians” who survived on the occupied peninsula, the author was outraged that several monuments to Taras Shevchenko had been erected in Crimea, who “was not connected with Crimea by any party”; then he gave the story of the establishment of almost each of them, while for some reason taking the words “Kobzar” and “independence” in quotation marks. Orlov called the monument to Shevchenko in Simferopol a “match” and regretted that it was erected on the initiative of the authorities and not on the “sincere desire of the residents”: in his opinion, someone else’s will played a role here, marking a symbolic victory at that time. ideological war “,as “truly national monuments are created at the expense of donations of local inhabitants – as, for example, the monument to victims of OUN-UPA” Shot in a back “established in Simferopol”. The author himself is convinced and convinces the audience: “Shevchenko’s gloomy face” Crimean cities “marked” “ardent enemies and haters of Russia, who used the monument to Shevchenko as a kind of weapon against her”, “conscious brothers”, or “foreign bodies”. which was opposed by “picketers protesting against the banderization of the peninsula.” To decide the future fate of the “idols” of the poet Orlov proposed to conduct a survey of local residents – “whether they want to continue to see in their cities a gloomy uncle with a mustache, or in the central squares of our cities can be immortalized in bronze more worthy people”: for example, “Little Russian” Gogol, “who, unlike Shevchenko, visited the Crimea,”or Dmitry Grebyonkin, a native of Vyborg buried in Yalta for some reason (he served in the Russian occupation contingent in Transnistria, took part in combat operations against Chechen insurgents and died during one of them in 2000, posthumously receiving the title of “Hero of Russia”), or Yalta Artem Myastkovsky, who fought against Ukraine on the side of the DNR and was killed in the WAR. Next – direct citation of conclusions:In almost all the cases described, there was not a sincere desire of the majority of the city’s natives to perpetuate the memory of Shevchenko, but an outright imposition of the symbol of Ukrainianness – a kind of anti-Russian “Trojan horse”, near which locals will constantly gather for their “holidays”. and visitors “conscious”. Ukraine left the Crimea. We will hope that Ukraine will soon leave Novorossia and Little Russia with or without our help. Now it would not hurt us to clean up in our own house after the brazen disgusting “tenant” who once broke in here without permission left. And the fact that the “tenant” has forgotten some of his babies here does not mean that we must necessarily take care of them forever. Even if someone sighs that they are lying and do not touch anyone. Babies should be sent after the owner or sent to the scrap yard.We must say goodbye to Ukrainians once and for all. And although today some people are trying to create some kind of alternative non-Bandera Ukrainianness and make friends with it, but, as one Ukrainian poetess said, “we will never be brothers.” Ukrainian fans of Shevchenko’s embroideries and poems sooner or later start telling anecdotes about Muscovites, and then walk around with portraits of Bandera, bend and shout: “Muscovite on a branch” ». However, counter-arguments of dubious quality were also cited regarding Shevchenko’s monuments: “One should not be like” conscious “savages and break monuments. It is better to mention that Shevchenko is not only a Ukrainian poet, but also a Russian writer – all his prose is written in Russian. And this reminder for the “conscious” will be an even bigger blow than the demolition of the monument. Because they use demolition for a “conscious” scream on the theme of “our beat” ; “As a poet, I do not like Shevchenko, but I am against the demolition of monuments: first, not to be like; secondly, it is not necessary to offend our fellow citizens-Ukrainians – someone loves his poetry, and by what miracle to deprive the person of the right to bring flowers to a monument? And, in the end, to fight with monuments is indecent. They can’t give a damn ” ;”And to ban borsch, as, in the end, and lard… Well and to whom the monument to Shevchenko interferes? Do you think the “squares” read his poems? Will we be like savages… By the way, Shevchenko wrote better in Russian. Such an article could be slapped only by someone who does not want peace and harmony between the peoples of Crimea. We should not forget that Crimean Ukrainians, who are second only to the Russians on the peninsula, also voted for the separation of Crimea from present-day Ukraine . ”
A caricature commemoration of Shevchenko in Simferopol took place on March 9, 2018, when “activists of the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian communities of Crimea” held events dedicated to the birthdays of Taras Shevchenko and Yuri Gagarin near their monuments. “It is noteworthy that on this day, although in different years, different eras, two people were born, whose names the whole Slavic world is proud of: Ukrainian Taras Shevchenko and Russian Yuri Gagarin. These names are a symbol of the inviolable friendship of our fraternal peoples. And neither the Bandera neo-Nazis nor their overseas masters can do anything about it. Shevchenko, without any doubt, can be called an outstanding figure of Slavic culture, which is simply impossible to divide. Yes, his name is still being manipulated by nationalists of various tones, who led Ukraine – the poet’s homeland – to disaster. For some reason, they forget that Taras Hryhorovych called for living in peace and friendship with Russia and the Russians. He did not see another future for Ukraine. How can Ukrainians living in Crimea not see it? ”, – it was said in the press release of the event, which took place in Russian under the Russian flag. At the same time, the head of the Ukrainian Community of Crimea Anastasia Gridchina accused the Ukrainian authorities of “using Shevchenko’s name to divide the Slavic peoples” and “wanting to show that the poet was against Russia and the Slavic world.” but “if we open the same Kobzar, we will see that he wrote that the Slavs are one people.” “We respect the great classic of Ukrainian and world literature, despite the attempts of the modern Ukrainian government to tarnish his memory. Modern Ukraine makes our Kobzar a symbol of Russophobia and hostility to Russia. Although this is fundamentally wrong. Because Shevchenko was never a Russophobe, he loved his homeland, he hated serfdom. However, in spite of all this, he was a part of Russian society, our Russian civilization, and belongs not only to Ukraine, but also to Russia and Belarus. Moreover, Shevchenko was one of the Panslavists, a supporter of the unity of the Russian people, to which he included Ukrainians. “, – Gridchina later wrote on her Facebook page. During an event led by Serhiy Ilyichov, a “deputy of the Simferopol City Council” and a retired political officer, she also voiced the thesis that the Bandera people were using the name of Shevchenko, who was not a Russophobe and was a unifying image. three Slavic peoples. ” Some speakers called Shevchenko a “Russian writer.” After the pro-Russian rally, Ukrainians from Simferopol gathered near the monument to Shevchenko, laid bouquets in the colors of the Ukrainian state flag, recited Kobzar’s favorite poems, and impromptu sang a well-known song to his words, “The Dnieper Roars and Moans Wide.”
On August 24, 2018, the publication “Arguments of the Week – Crimea” was pleased to announce that by the Independence Day of Ukraine “patriots of Ukraine in the Crimea did not appear”:”After Crimea became part of Russia, they stopped celebrating this date on its territory. Despite this, several pro-Ukrainian activists on the peninsula made themselves known on August 24 each year. In different years of the Russian Crimea, residents of the republic who were not indifferent to Ukraine gathered near the monument to Taras Shevchenko in Simferopol. Sometimes they were even detained by the police. However, today the square in front of the monument to Shevchenko was empty. A police officer and two members of the Crimean militia were on duty at the entrance to the park of the same name. The guards said that their appearance near the park had nothing to do with the Independence Day of Ukraine, and activists who would lay flowers at the monument to Taras Hryhorovych were not noticed. Nevertheless, under the “Chupa-Chups”, as it is sometimes called by the townspeople, fresh flowers were laid. It is noteworthy that they were not there yesterday. “.
A monument to Taras Shevchenko in Sevastopol was unveiled on August 24, 2003, in front of the Gagarin District Council building. Its authors are Lviv sculptors, father and son Vasyl and Volodymyr Odrekhivsky. The pedestal in the form of a stylized bandura almost 4.5 m high, lined with brown and red granite, was made by local architect Georgy Grigoryants; on the pedestal is a bronze figure of the poet in full height, almost 4 m tall. The monument to Sevastopol in 2002 was donated by the Foundation. TG Shevchenko; Approximately UAH 500,000 from the local budget was used for general construction works.
On March 9, 2014, bloody clashes took place near the monument to Shevchenko between pro-Ukrainian activists and separatist groups. As Oleksiy Shubin, a local Euromaidan resident, recalled, every year patriots of Ukraine gathered near the monument and celebrated Kobzar’s birthday; so it was in 2014.”Initially, there were about 200 of us. Almost instantly, several buses arrived with quilted jackets. Interestingly, they were all non-native, strong build, with sticks, batons, “injuries”. And immediately charged with hatred, it seems that we embodied Hitler and Bandera for them. We were allegedly guarded by cops, although almost all of them wore “Colorado” ribbons. The police demonstratively stood facing us. And so, when we started to break up and she disappeared very quickly, the aunts attacked. They pushed terribly, they got it. Probably, someone would have been killed for sure, if not for a few emveesniks who pushed us into a car and sent us to the police station , ” he said.
Sevastopol Ukrainians celebrated the Independence Day of Ukraine that year by laying flowers at the monument to Taras Shevchenko. In the evening, well-known Ukrainian activists of the city were called by unknown persons, demanding to refuse to honor the Independence of Ukraine; this was the reason that there was no general organization, people came and laid flowers from 9 to 12 o’clock in the afternoon, individually or in small groups. There were provocateurs inciting Ukrainians to conflict, but incidents were avoided.
In February 2016, a small group of residents of the Gagarin district of Sevastopol began collecting signatures and asked the city “authorities” to demolish the monument to Shevchenko as “another element of Ukrainian heritage” and instead install “something Russian” – such as Pushkin or Lermontov. The Ukrainian National-Cultural Society of Sevastopol protested against this initiative, urging city residents to preserve the monument, not to take part in an unworthy action against it and not to sign any documents on its dismantling or relocation to the outskirts of the city.
The monument to Taras Shevchenko in Yevpatoria was inaugurated in 2003 on the corner of Shevchenko Street of the same name during the celebrations on the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of the city. The sculpture of the writer is made of a material tinted in bronze. The monument was built almost 2.5 m high by a local sculptor Oleksiy Shmakov, known not only in Evpatoria. The sculpture marked the beginning of building and ennobling the street of the same name, which was later built with boarding houses and cottages.
In the spring of 2014, it was planned to carry out a large complex of works on landscaping around the monument to Shevchenko: the city budget was to provide about 240 thousand UAH.
In 2016, during the preparations for the holiday season in Evpatoria, events were held related to the improvement of the area around the monument. Employees of the “municipal budget institution” dismantled the old tiles around the monument, which over time deformed and had an unaesthetic appearance.
The official date of the unveiling of the monument to Shevchenko in Kerch is the 10th anniversary of Ukraine’s Independence – August 23, 2001. The sculpture itself was made in 1969 by a prominent Kerch artist and sculptor, chief artist of Kerch and Honored Artist of Ukraine Roman Serdyuk (1928-1992) , who in 1966 also made a sculpted work of tinted plaster “T.G. Shevchenko “for the city theater. The almost 4-meter pedestal of the bust of Shevchenko is made of granite blocks. The monument was unveiled under partnership agreements between Kerch and Kyiv; Its establishment was initiated by mayors Oleh Osadchy and Oleksandr Omelchenko. It was decided to erect a monument in one of the then still unnamed city squares on the right bank of the river Melek-Chesme; since then this square has been named after Shevchenko.
Surprisingly, in 2016 in Kerch to the monument to Shevchenko on the anniversary of his birth put representatives of pro-Russian organizations – “All-Russian Women’s Union – Hope of Russia”, the city branch of “All-Russian creative movement -” Russian Lad “and the city organization of the Communist Party. The following year, in the morning, unknown individuals laid blue and yellow bouquets of flowers at the monument. On March 9, 2019, commemorative events were announced at the initiative of the “Ukrainian community of Kerch”.
The monument to Taras Shevchenko in Yalta was inaugurated on December 8, 2007 in the city square, which was later named after the poet. The monument was made in 2005 on the initiative of the All-Ukrainian Charitable Foundation “Foundation. Taras Shevchenko ”; The sponsor was a couple from Toronto (Canada), doctors Vasyl Ivanytsky and Natalia Bundza. The author of the monument to the young poet was a famous Ukrainian sculptor from the city of Winnipeg Leo Mol (Leonid Molodozhanin), who is the author of monuments to Shevchenko in Washington, Buenos Aires, St. Petersburg. The monument was made of bronze in Argentina; its weight is 2.5 tons, height is more than 3 meters. From Argentina, the monument was shipped to Odessa, then transported to Yalta, where it was stored for about two years, until the city authorities found a suitable place for it in the city center.About 300 people took part in the opening – representatives of the authorities, the Ukrainian community of the city and the Ukrainian registered Cossacks. Provocateurs tried to spoil the festivities with anti-Ukrainian slogans and posters such as “It is impossible to Ukrainize Crimeans”, “Shevchenko served in the Russian army – Shukhevych served in the German army” and so on.
In his materials, Oleksandr Yaroshevsky, a journalist with the Crimean Room, mentioned the long-forgotten modest concrete bust of Shevchenko, which was located in his native Sudak, in the industrial zone on the western outskirts, in front of the main entrance to the office of the repair and construction department; it existed around the 1970s.
Since Soviet times, there is a bas-relief of Shevchenko in the village of Slovyansky, Rozdolne district, the date of creation of which is unknown. It is possible that in other villages of the Crimea there are also sculptural images of the poet of that time, unknown to the general public.
The Russian occupation of Crimea in 2014 forced an indefinite postponement of the erection of monuments to Taras Shevchenko in Dzhanka, scheduled for autumn 2013, and in the village of Novoozerny, Evpatoria region, where in 2015 a report was received about the dismantling of the memorial stone. The fate of Kobzar’s bust on the territory of the Navy headquarters occupied by the occupiers in Sevastopol is also unknown.