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Pavlo Ivanovych Hollandsky – professor of architecture, art critic, historian and archaeologist, restorer, artist, teacher, one of the brightest representatives of the Crimean culture of the 20-30s of the XX century. He was born on December 26, 1861 in the village of Aksai Region of the Don Army (modern Rostov Region) in the family of a non-commissioned officer of the Life Guards of the Cossack Regiment Ivan Holland and the daughter of the Cossack officer of the village of Oleksandrivska Anna Chirvina. According to family legends, the family owes a somewhat exotic surname to a distant ancestor from the time of Peter I, when sailors and shipbuilders from Holland were invited to serve in the Russian Empire: this ancestor was shipwright Jan from Zaandam, who settled with a group of compatriots. Already in the days of Catherine II, one of his descendants, not wanting to take the “canonical” name (which allegedly insisted on the Empress),became known by the nationality of the ancestor. According to onomastic dictionaries, the bearer of the surname “Dutch” could be either a descendant of a Dutchman who came to Russia, or a Russian who lived in the Netherlands for a long time, or a person who wore foreign clothes or smoked tobacco.
In 1866 the head of the family died of tuberculosis; his wife and children had nothing to live for. At first, Pavlo was sent to a primary school in the village of Oleksandrivska, and at the age of 13 he entered the Novocherkassk gymnasium; in the 3rd grade, the boy even gave private lessons to younger students and entrants. He also studied painting until the end of his studies, intending to enter the Imperial Academy of Arts, but due to difficulties he had to get rid of this dream. In 1883, Paul received a high school diploma, and later was enrolled in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of St. Petersburg University. However, thoughts about art did not leave him – as well as plans to transfer to the architectural department of the Academy of Arts, which was hindered by the need to keep his brother and sister. After graduating from two courses, the boy entered the Institute of Civil Engineers.After graduating in 1892, Dutch worked for some time with famous St. Petersburg architects, then – in Kiev in the Department of Architecture of the South-Western Railway; in 1893 due to the plague epidemic had to go to the Novgorod province. Soon Dutch returned to St. Petersburg and began teaching at the Institute of Railways. In 1898, after pneumonia, he moved to Kyiv on the recommendation of doctors, where he taught architecture and architectural drawing at the Polytechnic Institute, and later became a professor at the Department of Architecture. He studies the architectural art of Kievan Rus. As a scientific secretary of the Kyiv Society of History, Archeology and Art, he took part in the excavations of the Tithe Church, the Golden Gate, the estate of St. Sophia Cathedral, the Church of the Savior on Bor, and the Cathedral in Vydubychi. He submitted his building projects to competitions,the construction of which was envisaged and implemented in Kyiv, and he himself was repeatedly a member of the tender commissions. Currently, Kyiv buildings designed by or with the participation of the Dutch are architectural monuments protected by the state.
In 1902, Pavlo Ivanovych married a Catholic, Eleonora Chechet; the marriage was childless, the woman’s fate is unknown. In early 1914, Dutch became a professor of art history of the Ancient East at the Kiev Archaeological Institute. The course had to be interrupted due to the beginning of the First World War. In 1915, working at KPI, Dutch also taught at the Kiev technical courses of V. Perminov.
During the Ukrainian national liberation struggle, Pavlo Ivanovych decided to leave Kyiv, where the Directory led by Simon Petliura came to power, and return to Novocherkassk, but due to transport problems caused by the war, he found himself in 1919 in the Crimean Balaklava, without opportunities neither to return to Kyiv, nor to get to the native land. The 58-year-old man found himself abroad with no means of subsistence. However, thanks to the recommendations of Kiev acquaintances, he managed to get a job in Sevastopol in the Slavic Society of Shipping and Trade. Accompanying the cargo on a steamer to Istanbul, the Dutch remained there for two months, delving into the study of ancient Byzantine and modern Turkish architecture. After the capture of Crimea by the Bolsheviks in 1919.The Dutch accidentally returned to Sevastopol – and for the rest of his life did not leave the peninsula, not taking advantage, unlike many compatriots, the opportunity to stay abroad. In Sevastopol had to survive the postwar ruin, the general disorder, the rampant banditry, the famine of 1921-1922.
For 20 years, Paul Dutch has been working for the benefit of the Crimea, saving rarities from destruction and looting and building new buildings, immersed in the study of architecture and art of the peoples who inhabited the Crimea for hundreds and millennia.
In 1920-1923 Pavlo Ivanovych worked as a researcher at the Chersonese Museum, additionally being a member of the Crimean Regional Committee for Museums and Protection of Monuments of Art, History, Antiquity and Folk Life (Krymokhis; existed in 1920-1927); usually museum staff were members of this organization, which aimed to collect artistic values, protection of ancient monuments, the formation of museum collections. Dutch had to audit and repair the buildings of the Crimean museums, survey architectural monuments and their protection.
In September 1922, Pavlo Hollandski married Olga Peresypkina, the daughter of a priest of the local Peter and Paul Church. In July 1923 their son Oleg was born. In the same year the family moved to Simferopol. Until 1927, Dutch worked at the Central Museum of Tavrida at the same time in two positions – scientific curator of the museum and head of the art gallery, devoting all his time to the formation of museum funds, creating exhibitions, organizing exhibitions, repairing the museum building, located on the street. Dolgorukovskaya, in the building. № 35 (in 1927 the museum moved to the house № 18 on Pushkin Street – to the former shelter for girls Countess Adlerberg).
At the end of 1923, Paul of Holland became a member of the Taurian Society of History, Archeology and Ethnography; in particular, during the meetings he reported on the results of archaeological research of architectural monuments of medieval Solkhat (Old Crimea), in the organization and conduct of which he took the most active part.
Paul of Holland belonged to the “old” intelligentsia, was not in any parties or armies, did not take part in revolutions and wars – and thus was suspicious of the new “masters of life” (in addition, in addition to Russian and Ukrainian, spoke Polish, French and German). In July 1924, the deputy head of Krymohis, J. Birzgal, reported to the GPU about the “abuse” by the head of the Sevastopol Defense Museum, Lavrentiy Moiseyev, who was also the director of the Chersonesos Museum and the head of the Sevastopol branch of Krymokhis (Sevmuzohis). Moiseyev and a group of Sevmuzohis and Dutch workers were accused of “economic and political counterrevolution” and arrested on “illegal” return to their former owners of “a huge amount of valuable property of museum value and industrial value in general.collected at one time by the commission for the oppression and expropriation of the bourgeoisie and confiscated on the basis of the revolutionary laws of the time “, as well as non-accounting in 1920-1924 of” expropriated “and transferred to the museum valuables, which” created a huge possibility of various thefts. ”
It should be noted that the return of confiscated items (not to property, but to temporary use) was a forced measure and was carried out due to completely unsuitable storage conditions by the relevant decree of the People’s Commissar, the museum department of the People’s Commissariat, and only then by the museum committee. as well as all defendants) and the order of the authorized Sevmuzokhis. The investigation lasted as long as 28 months and was closed in October 1926 by the Supreme Court of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic due to lack of corpus delicti. However, in the late summer of 1924 Dutch was released from custody (he was vouched for by a certain Birzgal, who slandered) with permission to return to office.
In the autumn of 1923, Pavlo Ivanovych went on a business trip to Sevastopol to find out the need to repair modern buildings at the museum and to inspect the condition of historical monuments in Chersonesos. In the report he drew attention to the need to restore the supporting parts of the embankment along almost the entire length of the old museum, to install fences on the territory of Chersonese settlement and carefully described the work to save the Church of the Cross (southwest of Chersonese settlement, necropolis) and its mosaics. In February 1925 he inspected the building of the Chersonese Museum, and in January 1926 – the Chersonese settlement. The conclusions were disappointing: Dutch recorded a “picture of the gradual and fairly rapid destruction of ancient monuments by the elements and at the hands of man” and suggested measures that needed to be taken urgently to save them.
In 1924-1926, Dutch was on endless business trips: in Alupka – to estimate the repair of the Vorontsov Palace, and later to inspect the “alterations”; in Evpatoria – for “transfer of values” to Simferopol and inspection of the Khan’s mosque, tekke of dervishes, Karaite kenas, an ancient city gate; in Sudak – to study the condition of monuments, making drawings and plans of the Genoese fortress to be repaired, drawing up estimates for the repair of the fortress and the organization of repair work (while Dutch had a mission of personal supervision over the architectural monuments of Sudak). Earlier, in 1923, he was entrusted with repair and restoration work in the Bakhchisaray Palace; in particular, the Dutch were concerned about the state of disrepair of the Falcon Tower and the Green Mosque (Yesil¬Jami), the restoration of which would be even dangerous for thosewho conducts it “, and the funds for its repair” would be almost equal to the cost of the same new building. ” Dutch thus rightly insisted on the need to record the general appearance of the mosque and its individual details as soon as possible, to make measurements, drawings and drawings of the building, the salvation of which seemed almost impossible (the mosque was finally destroyed after World War II and its remains dismantled).
The work of Pavel Ivanovich in the ethnographic and archeological expedition of 1925-1926, organized by the All-Union Scientific Association of Oriental Studies together with the Bakhchisaray Museum, was significant. Participants of the expedition calculated and measured a significant number of monuments and collected many household items and art in Bakhchisarai, Evpatoria, Karasubazar (Bilogirsk), the Old Crimea, Sudak, Feodosia and other places. The Dutchman, who spent his entire life in the Crimea studying Crimean Tatar architectural monuments, also studied medieval Armenian buildings – in particular, the Church of St. Nicholas in Evpatoria and the monastery of Surb-Khach near the Old Crimea.
In 1926, Dutch took part in the archeological excavations in Naples Scythian in Simferopol, in all reports and insisting on the need as soon as possible to describe, graphic and photographic fixation of all architectural monuments of the peninsula, when there is no or lack of funds for their repair and restoration.
In the autumn of 1926, Paul of Holland was appointed a scientific specialist in the protection of ancient monuments and art under the Commissioner of the Main Science in the Crimea; while he remained the custodian of the Central Museum of Tauris. Also having the status of an architect-archaeologist of Krymnarkompros, in 1927 he toured many towns and villages of the peninsula, making sketches in the album of landscapes and monuments that attracted his attention. It is believed that he was the first in the Crimea to inspect all architectural and historical monuments, making complete architectural measurements, drawing up a special scientific passport and instructions for it. The Dutch manuscript “Guide to the technical protection of monumental historical monuments, their registration and fixation” has been preserved; text, unfortunately, was not published.But the instruction “Technical protection of ancient monuments and methods of their fixation” was recommended for printing and distribution at a meeting of the museum-¬archaeological commission of the Academic Council of the Crimean People’s Commissariat on March 26, 1927; it was also planned to publish it in abbreviated form in the Crimean Tatar language.
Dutch combined practical activity with thorough scientific work. He was among the organizers of All-Union scientific conferences – Kerch (September 1926, dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the Kerch Museum of Antiquities) and Chersonese (September 1927, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of excavations in Chersonesos), where he delivered reports prepared at based on archaeological excavations in the Old Crimea and Chersonesos. Pavlo Ivanovych also took part in the all-Crimean museum conferences, which took place almost every year in 1922-1930.
The devastating earthquake that occurred in the Crimea on the night of September 11-12, 1927 (just during a conference in Chersonesos) prompted Paul of Holland to study it. The Crimean CEC appointed the scientist as the head of the Commission for the Investigation of the Destruction Caused by the Natural Resources, and later as the head of research to find the means to restore the destroyed buildings. Of course, the disaster affected the architectural monuments. In Sevastopol, special attention was paid to the buildings and remains of archeological monuments on the territory of the Chersonese settlement, on the South Coast – to the buildings of sanatoriums, which are mainly architectural monuments of the XIX – early XX centuries. (Alupkinsky, Livadia and other palaces, former dachas “Dolphin”, “Empire”, “Cameo”, “Elena” and others), hospitals, educational institutions, religious buildings; in Evpatoria – to the Khan Jami Mosque, in Sudak – to the Genoese fortress,in Bakhchisarai – on the premises of the Khan’s Palace complex. The result of Pavel Ivanovich’s work was a series of works on seismology.
In 1928 Dutch was appointed an architect to the Department of Crimean Canning Trust, designs and manages the construction of a fish cannery in Feodosia (the building has not survived to this day), reconstruction of canneries in Simferopol and Balaklava, is a project of the cannery in Simferopol, Simferopol. 3). In 1931-1938 Dutch worked in the Crimea State Project Trust as an architect-designer, later – the head of the workshop; is engaged in the reconstruction of old buildings and the design and construction of new ones in Simferopol (it is noted that the buildings of his authorship were and are the decoration of the city). Dutch combined this work with other matters – he was a member of the expert and scientific and technical councils at the People’s Commissariat of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, headed the Crimean branch of the Union of Soviet Architects.At the First Congress of Crimean Architects (Simferopol, early 1935) he delivered a report on the prospects of development and objectives of Crimean architecture. He designed the planning of Simferopol.
He presented his rich photo library with images of architectural and art monuments to the Crimean branch of the Union of Architects. Despite the constant overload of practical work, he was engaged in scientific research, published books, articles and textbooks, spoke at scientific conferences, continued his dream and favorite teaching activity – at the Crimean University (modern TNU named after VI Vernadsky) worked privately. associate professor, gave lectures on ethnography of the peoples of the East and fine arts; later he taught the history of architecture at the Crimean branch of the Moscow Institute of Civil Engineering Engineers, where from 1938 he held the position of head of the educational unit; lectured and consulted at the Simferopol Construction College and at construction courses.
Taking care of the fate of the Bakhchisaray Palace-Museum became the basis for accusations of “deliberate actions to destroy the cultural values of the state.” In the summer of 1935, at the request of the museum’s management, Dutch acted as a consultant-architect for the renovation of the palace, which had not been repaired since 1910. After the 1927 earthquake and several hurricanes, the palace began to collapse. Attention was drawn to the fact that the 100,000 rubles provided for its repair were too small – it was impossible to carry out major repairs for them. However, the budget was not increased, so the repairs were incomplete and “almost completely did not affect the proper restoration of the palace, which requires not only much more money, but more than one year.”
The verdict of the representatives of the State Academy of the History of Material Culture (GAIMC) in August 1936 was devastating: the funds were “used to the detriment of a famous outstanding monument of national culture”, the work was carried out “without prior scientific and restoration training”, some paintings were destroyed in the process of plastering. -painting work carried out “technically incorrect”, etc. As a result, the question of Dutch’s qualifications and education was raised; or even his activity was called a “criminal and political crime”, which falls under “a certain article on the protection of national property”, and from which “appropriate technical and criminal conclusions” must be drawn.
In the last years of his life (since the spring of 1937) Paul Dutch lived in the “House of Specialists” on the street. Zhukovsky, bldg. 20 (street Samokisha, building 11), apt. 25; before that the family lived in Bud. № 29 in Kryvyi Lane (modern Futbolistiv Street). The scientist died on February 6, 1939 at the age of 78. He was buried in the city cemetery in Simferopol, which is now practically destroyed.
While still alive, Pavlo Ivanovych, finding time for painting and graphics, painted for himself and his loved ones. Dated in 1927 and 1932, the drawings in his Crimean album, which his wife donated to the museum only 32 years after her husband’s death, contain buildings and architectural details, beautiful landscapes of Karasubazar (Belogorskaya), Old Crimea, Feodosia, Sudak, New World, Otuz village. (modern Shchebetovka), Simferopol, the “cave city” of Chufut-Kale near Bakhchisarai, Evpatoria, etc. Throughout the Crimean period of his life, Pavlo Ivanovych recorded monuments in drawings, drawings that deserve special attention as works of art, given their graphic clarity and careful transfer of details and photographs. The fate of the objects depicted by him is different: some, repeatedly restored, still exist, while others, unfortunately, have disappeared forever.Thanks to Dutch’s album, we can see both as they were in the distant years of Crimean history.
Anton BOZHUK, Candidate of Philological Sciences, Lecturer at the Department of Ukrainian Studies, NMU. OO Bogomolets