Activities of the Crimean Bolshevik organizations
/

Activities of the Crimean Bolshevik organizations in late 1918 – early 1919

Start

When the Republic of Tavrida ceased to exist, there was no leading Bolshevik center left in Crimea. This was evidenced by Yuri Gaven.

April 20, 1935, during one of the many nights, the memories of old Bolsheviks and underground Crimea regularly held on the initiative of the Crimean Regional Committee of the CPSU (b), he said: ” When you study the history of the first Crimean underground, you will see that for the first months of German occupation in the Crimea was a similar situation. Local organizations have been established since June, but there was no regional management center. The regional committee was formed only in November 1918. Until then, local organizations (Sevastopol and Simferopol) had direct contact with Moscow – through me with the Central Committee of the RCP (b), and later with the Central Committee of the CP (b) U. The regional committee was created only when local organizations strengthened and established ties with each other . “

Yuri Gaven
Yuri Gaven, Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1921-1924)

Beginning in the fall of 1918, the organization of the underground struggle in the Crimea was entrusted to the Central Committee of the RCP (B) by the Central Committee of the CP (B) U. For this purpose, at the plenum of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U, which took place in Orel on September 8, 1918, two special bodies were created – the Executive and Foreign Bureaus of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U. They were to direct the work of Bolshevik organizations in the occupied regions. During the Second Congress of the CP (B) U (October 17-22, 1918), 8 delegates from the party organization of the Tavriya Province took part in its work. Based on the general list of delegates who were present at the congress with a casting vote, we were able to establish the names of six of them: I. Morshin, S. Wolfson (Davidov), I. Shulman (all – from Sevastopol), Scherba (from Berdyansk), Tolstousov (from Melitopol district), Eiman (from Tavria). The other two names are hidden behind party pseudonyms,which the Bolshevik workers in the underground changed many times. Identification is also hampered by the fact that not all deputies indicated in their mandates where they were delegated to the congress.

On October 23, the plenum of the Central Committee of the CP (B) U took place. On the instructions of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), the process of transferring the party organization of Crimea to the Central Committee of the CP (b) U was played out according to a long-worked-out scenario. A statement from the Crimean Bolsheviks was published stating their desire to “work under the leadership of the Central Committee of the CP (B) U.” It goes without saying that the Central Committee of the CP (B) U satisfied him. It was emphasized, however, that “Crimea creates an independent region in organizational terms.” At the same time, it was decided to discuss with representatives of the Odessa regional committee the work of Bolshevik organizations in the mainland counties of the Tavriya province.

The Crimean Communist Party organization, in accordance with the instructions of the Central Committee of the RCP (B), became a part of the CP (B) U as a oblast. The Central Committee of the RCP (B) continued to lead all underground organizations in Ukraine, including the Crimean one, but through the Central Committee of the CP (B) U.
The Central Committee of the CP (B) U sent its own workers to the Crimea to establish military and party work on the peninsula. The Crimean party organization was managed through three centers – Kharkiv, Kyiv and Odesa, where branches of the illegal bureau of the Central Committee were organized. The lion’s share of contacts passed through Odessa.

At the October plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party (b) U, the Odessa regional committee was instructed to “travel around Crimea, help convene the Crimean Party Conference and provide all possible assistance to Crimean comrades, including money.” The IV Crimean Regional (Underground) Conference of the CP (B) U *, which took place on December 1, 1918, was attended by 24 delegates and a representative of the Central Committee of the CP (B) U, J. Hamarnyk. The conference decided to create a regional revolutionary committee to lead the insurgent movement and prepare for an armed uprising. In addition, the Crimean Regional Committee was established consisting of nine people: Peters (M. Gidalevich), M. Gershuni, I. Shulman, Lazar, Jan (Gamarnyk), Mykola (Timofeev), Shcherba, Mansarov and Marcus.

* It is necessary to dwell on the question of the ordinal numbering of the Crimean conferences of the Bolsheviks. During 1917-1920, eight conferences were held in the Crimea, but, in the end, most of them did not get to the numerological count. Let’s list them all: I provincial conference of the RSDLP (b) took place on October 2, 1917, II provincial conference of the RSDLP (b) – November 23-24, 1917, III provincial conference of the RSDLP (b) – March 2-5, 1918, IV Regional (Underground) Conference of the CP (B) U – December 1, 1918, V Regional (Underground) Conference of the CP (B) U – January 14, 1919, VI Regional Party Conference of the RCP (B) – April 28-29, 1919 , VII regional (underground) conference of the RCP (b) – May 5, 1920, VIII regional (underground) conference of the CP (b) U – September 3-5, 1920. After the Crimea was captured by Soviet troops, this account rooms were canceled.The next conference on May 17-21, 1921 became the IV regional. All previous conferences were called conferences and were covered in the literature. However, they were declared not to cover the entire territory of the peninsula, and they became a phantom. Researchers should remember that the numbers of some conferences in party documents stored in the Crimean archives are duplicative.

Activities of the Crimean Bolshevik organizationsThe composition of the regional committee elected by the congress began preparations for an armed uprising. He created underground organizations and armed guerrilla units, which were to carry out sabotage against the Anglo-French troops. The result of this work was discussed at the V Crimean regional (underground) conference of the CP (B) U, which took place on January 14, 1919.

It discussed field reports and current tasks of the Crimean organization. The conference elected a new composition of the Crimean Regional Committee in the number of seven people: I. Polonsky (Stepan), Beck (M. Zhuravlyov), Peters (M. Gidalevich), Solovyov, I. Shulman, Marcus, Shuster.
On March 16-23, 1919, the VIII Congress of the RCP (B) took place in Moscow. He adopted a new program and announced a course to build communism in the country. Considering the issue of Crimea, the Congress decided that the Crimean party organization is removed from the influence of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U and subordinated to the Central Committee of the RCP (b). This decision remained a written order for some time and was not implemented.

It is necessary to dwell on the question of the interaction of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) with the Bolshevik organizations on the territory of other Soviet republics. On March 21, at a congress meeting, Lenin stressed that the creation of independent republics — Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belarus — did not in any way mean that “the RCP should, in turn, be organized on the basis of a federation of independent communist parties.” The Congress passed a resolution stating: “ We need the existence of a single centralized Communist Party with a single Central Committee that manages all the work of the party. All decisions of the RCP and its governing bodies are definitely binding on all parts of the party, regardless of their ethnic composition . ” That is, the Central Committee of the National Communist Parties enjoyed in the single RCP (b) the rights of “regional committees and were completely subordinated to the Central Committee of the RCP (b).”

The Third Congress of the CP (B) U took place on March 1-6, 1919. A representative of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) Ya. Sverdlov , who was present at the congress, said in his welcoming speech: The Central Committee of our party at the previous congress on the indivisibility, on the integrity, on the unity of our entire party, does not depend on how our old united Russia will be divided, regardless of how we will have to divide the former Russia to separate republics: Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Estonia, Ukraine. We realize that as a party we remain the only Russian Communist Party with different branches in one or another republic . “

On March 2, Ya. Sverdlov again addressed the participants of the congress and stressed that everyone should connect the activities of the Central Committee of the CP (B) U with the work of the Central Committee of the RCP (B) as closely as possible. He argued this: “ It cannot be otherwise not only in Ukraine, but also in Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, everywhere and everywhere where we created independent Soviet republics, but left our Communist Party united. Its unity was preserved, and everywhere and everywhere the general political leadership belonged to the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party. Comrades have no right to forget that they are members of one common party, and no matter how the majority is formed today at this congress, no matter which Central Committee is elected, it will have to unite all comrades working in Ukraine, it must will receive general directives from the Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party and implement them here . “

After the congress, three members of the Crimean regional committee of the CP (B) U were present. . Therefore, on April 7, they decided to organize a bureau of the Crimean regional committee in Melitopol. A telegram was sent to the Central Committee of the RCP (B) stating: “ Three members of the Crimean Regional Committee, Shulman, Solovyov and Stepan, cut off from the Crimea, formed a bureau of the Crimean Regional Committee in Melitopol. They conduct regional party work in the city and district. The Political Department of the 2nd Zadniprovska Brigade of the Southern Front asks the Central Committee for approval of this bureau. Copies of the minutes of the bureau’s meetings were sent to the Central Committee of the RCP . “

Pavlo Dybenko, in 1919 - Commander of the Crimean Army and People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of the Crimean Soviet Republic
Pavlo Dybenko, in 1919 – Commander of the Crimean Army and People’s Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of the Crimean Soviet Republic

In the spring of 1919, the Red Army began to occupy the territory of southern Ukraine. On the night of April 4, the 2nd Brigade of the Dnieper Division under the command of P. Dybenko went on the offensive at Perekop and occupied it. With the support of Crimean partisans and underground fighters, several regiments of the 1st Zadniprovskaya Division of the Red Army occupied Dzhankoi, Yalta, Bakhchisarai, Yevpatoria, and Simferopol during the first decade of the month. Crimean regional government ceased to exist…

D. Pasmanik believed that the decline in the second Crimean regional government was due to his “indecision”: ” The fundamental error of the Crimean government was that he wanted to recreate the wartime perfectly parliamentary system in the Crimea, which did neither Clemenceau in France or Lloyd George in England, not even the socialist Noske in Germany . P. Milyukov also believed that in the form of the rule of S. Crimea on the peninsula there was a” second birth of Kerenschina. “

If you have found a spelling error, please, notify us by selecting that text and pressing Ctrl+Enter.

The project was implemented with the support of the Ukrainian Cultural Foundation

Tetiana Bikova

Candidate of Historical Sciences, Scientist of the Institute of History of Ukraine of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: