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The most important consequence of the First Crimean Tatar Delegate Congress was the official approval of the first program of Millie Firk. This party was formed in the spring and acted in close connection with the Music Executive Committee. Researchers still express different opinions about the beginning of purely party activities among the Crimean Tatars.
However, in July 1917, the backbone of the party was finally formed. According to estimates made by researchers based on local press, the number of members of the Tatar party was almost 60 thousand people. Even if this figure was exaggerated, Millie Firka still became an influential force to be reckoned with by other political parties.
The first members of the Central Committee of Millie Firk’s party included Chelebidzhan Chelebiev, Jaffar Seydamet, Asan-Sabri Aivazov, Seitjelil Khattatov, Amet Ozenbashli, Jafer Ablayev, Abdul Hilmi (Ilmi). Millie Firka set herself the task of creating a national and cultural autonomous Crimean statehood.
The first program of the party, adopted at the congress, consisted of four parts: “National Legal Region,” “On the Manner of Government and Civil Duty,” “On the Protection of the Homeland and the State,” and “Agrarian and Economic Issues.”
The program proclaimed democratic values, expressed support for the Provisional Government, and advocated the convening of the All-Russian Constituent Assembly as soon as possible, which was to approve the foundations of a democratic republic. As for the state system of the country, according to the authors of the program, the new state should become a democratic federation, where peoples and languages would have equal rights. The preamble to the program stated that the future country should become a democratic federation of nationalities, and each of the nationalities living in it should have national autonomy. The program further emphasized: ” The party demands the creation of a truly people’s republic in Crimea in the broadest sense of the freedom of action of all nations inhabiting Crimea, both nationally and culturally .”
The federal structure of the state provided for the freedom of self-determination of the autonomous regions that were part of it, the introduction on the territory of each of them of office work in the native language in administrative, cultural and religious institutions. At the same time, citizens who did not belong to the indigenous people had to receive the same rights that the Crimean Tatar party demanded for the Tatars. Parliamentary rule and the need for a nationwide referendum to adopt the future constitution of the new state were proclaimed.
The program provided for the right of the population to free general compulsory education, equality of all citizens before the law and universal equal, direct, secret ballot in elections for those over 20 years of age, freedom of conscience and religion, assembly, freedom of the press. Restrictions on resettlement in Russia (the so-called “settlement limit”), the obligation to obtain a passport to travel abroad, and the abolition of all class privileges were to be lifted.
The plants and factories of the Crimea were to be transferred to the ownership of the workers, and the profits they provided had to be distributed among those who worked for them. The land issue was solved by the socialization of economic territories – the land was to become the property of the peasants without any payment to the former owners. In the same way all waqf property was transferred to national communities.
Cooperation with the Central Rada was continued on September 21-28 (8-15), 1917, when the Congress of Enslaved Peoples took place in Kyiv. A delegation of Crimean Tatars took an active part in its work. Among the delegates were such prominent figures as D. Seidamet, C. Chelebiev, A. Ozenbashli, A. Iskhakova, S. Idrisov, E. Shabarov. A. Ozenbashli made a report at the meeting, saying: “Crimean Tatars are accustomed to living a free life, always fleeing oppression and have the full right to freely and independently build their own lives on their own land… If our khans entered into alliances with Ukrainians, Poles, Russians and others. nationalities to subdue and oppress other nationalities, we, the free sons of the now free Tatar people, extend a hand to you with the slogan of a democratic federal republic for a happy, friendly life together in the future .
The congress decided to create national and personal autonomy in Crimea. The resolution stated: “Each of the peoples inhabiting Russia has the right to national and personal autonomy… The scope of government, as well as certain forms of internal organization are determined by the National Constituent Assembly of a nation and regardless of the sex of the vote. ” According to the resolution, the right to decide the future fate of Crimea belonged exclusively to the inhabitants of the peninsula.
The head of the Crimean Tatar delegation, Ch. Chelebiyev, said in an interview with the Voice of the Tatars that “the leadership of the Central Rada has decided to give the Crimean government full freedom of action.” In turn, D. Seidamet noted: “The system in the country is fully in our interests. But the question of borders arose. We considered it necessary to ask the Council: is Crimea within the limits of your territorial autonomy? To this end, a delegation was sent to Kyiv to instruct the Rada to congratulate Ukraine so that the Rada, in turn, would congratulate us on Crimea.… Statement of Ukrainians: “We congratulate you on Crimea because we see viable forces there, were satisfied with this »…
On October 14-15, 1917, the Second All-Crimean Tatar Delegate Congress (ie, the Congress of National Public Organizations) took place. It was attended by 200 delegates, including 20 women. During the congress, a number of decisions were made, which led to the improvement of the structure and organization of the Crimean Tatar movement, in particular, the convening of the Kurultai and the second program of the party of Milli Firka.
Speaking at the meeting on October 15, Ch. Chelebiyev highlighted the most important task for the future Kurultay: “Discussion of issues of territorial autonomy for the Crimea, if adopted – the publication of relevant basic laws.” During his speech, A. Ozenbashli added that the Kurultai “must show its own attitude to the question of the form of domination in the country and to the Constituent Assembly.” Therefore, it was decided to convene a national congress on December 7 – before the opening of the Constituent Assembly.
According to A.-S. Aivazov’s recollections, before the vote on the adoption of the second program of Millie Firk’s party, Ch. Chelebiyev addressed the audience with the question: “Who wants to join Millie Firk, raise your hands.” All delegates did so. Aivazov further writes: “Thus, all participants in the congress, about 300 people *, began to be considered as members of the party.” After that, the leaders of “MF” Seidametov and Chelebiev were invited by delegates to recruit on the ground in “MF” new members and organize cells “MF” in cities and villages “.
When involved in the party, recruiters did not pay attention to the origin of a Tatar. Accepted without exception. This was explained, according to A. Ozenbashli, by the fact that ” we are Tatars and Muslims, and the Qur’an says:” All Muslims are brothers, all Tatars are relatives. ” Islam unites us with the Qur’an – religion, and Tatar – by race and blood. So we can’t have classes . “
On November 3 (October 21) Ch. Chelebiyev took part in the celebrations held in Bakhchisarai on the occasion of the opening of a network of educational institutions there. An art school, a teacher’s seminary named after I. Gasprinsky, and a reorganized Zindjirli madrasah were opened at the Mengli-Gireevsky Institute, which consisted of two departments: secular and spiritual.
In addition, the National Crimean Tatar Museum was established in the Khan’s Palace. During this solemn event, the mufti delivered a speech that can be considered a program speech on the tasks of the entire Crimean Tatar national movement. In particular, he said: “Nation! We are in an ancient building built by our glorious ancestors. They, the ancestors, were stable people. We are among the great monuments built by our ancestors… We decided to honor our deceased ancestors, to show them the respect they deserved. To this end, we decided to open a Tatar National Museum… We will work together to collect in the Khan’s Palace all the samples (exhibits) of our national past… Kurultai opened here will help gather information about our political activities and samples of national art … Given the political situation in the Crimea during this period, which we are currently experiencing, it was necessary for us to hold a national Kurultai in this historic building… We are an obstacle to the anarchy that has reigned throughout the country, we protect Crimea and its people protect To protect Crimea,to establish its laws and order in it, we decided to convene the Kurultay of Crimean Muslims, as it is a well-known to the Turks for centuries a legislative institution to ensure order and justice. He brought the light of justice not only to the Turks but also to other peoples. The Kurultai not only seeks to establish his power, he dreams of working together with other inhabitants of the Crimea (that is, with non-Tatars). Our people are just. He cares not only about himself. He takes to heart the grief of other nations. By accepting, along with his laws and legal norms, the laws and legal norms of others, he thus expresses his respect for them.He wants to realize the principle of just mutual coexistence with other inhabitants of Crimea… Tatars, just as they recognize their own rights as sacred,recognize the rights of others… Tatars today… respect other nations, sincerely respect their rights, feel great about them respect. They want other nations, workers of other nations, to work with them, to work with them, to be equal to them. Tatars, together with other inhabitants, will spread light and radiance in the Crimea, together with them will live a beautiful life in the conditions of general equality. There are many flowers, different colors and aromas in Crimea. These flowers are the nations that live in Crimea: Crimean Tatars, Russians, Jews, Greeks, Germans and others. The task of the Kurultay is to unite everyone and, making one wonderful bouquet of them, turn Crimea into a real cultural Switzerland.The National Kurultai will take care not only of Muslims but also of other nations,it invites them to cooperate and will move at the same pace with them. Our nation is only the initiator in this matter. I would like to point out to those who do not know the fact that throughout our history we have shown full respect for the rights of all other nations. We will continue to reckon with the rights of others. The Kurultai will realize the ideals of all the peoples of Crimea… The Tatar nation has recognized, recognizes and will recognize the rights of other nations. The purpose of the Tatar Kurultay is for Tatars to work side by side with other nations living in the Crimea. The Tatar Kurultai invites other nations to cooperateI would like to point out to those who do not know the fact that throughout our history we have shown full respect for the rights of all other nations. We will continue to reckon with the rights of others.The Kurultai will realize the ideals of all the peoples of Crimea… The Tatar nation has recognized, recognizes and will recognize the rights of other nations. The purpose of the Tatar Kurultay is for Tatars to work side by side with other nations living in the Crimea. The Tatar Kurultai invites other nations to cooperateI would like to point out to those who do not know the fact that throughout our history we have shown full respect for the rights of all other nations. We will continue to reckon with the rights of others. The Kurultai will realize the ideals of all the peoples of Crimea… The Tatar nation has recognized, recognizes and will recognize the rights of other nations. The purpose of the Tatar Kurultay is for Tatars to work side by side with other nations living in the Crimea.The Tatar Kurultai invites other nations to cooperateworked together with other nations living in the Crimea. The Tatar Kurultai invites other nations to cooperateworked together with other nations living in the Crimea. The Tatar Kurultai invites other nations to cooperate»…
* Yes in the text. The number is incorrect. In fact – 200 people.